Balkan frame with his hands

The word "Albania" has other meanings: see Albania (meanings).

For the term “Republic of Albania”, see also other meanings.

Albania (alb. Shqipëria), the full official form is the Republic of Albania [4] (alb. Republika e Shqipërisë [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛcipəˈɾiːs]) - the state in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The population, according to the Institute of Statistics of Albania on January 1, 2017, is 2,876,591 people, the territory is 28,748 km². It occupies the 136th place in the world in terms of population and 139th in the territory.

The capital is Tirana. The state language is Albanian.

Albania is a unitary state, a parliamentary republic. Since July 24, 2017, Ilir Mehta has become the President of Albania, and Edy Rama has been the Prime Minister since September 15, 2013.

Administrative divisions are divided into 12 regions.

It is located in the south-east of Europe on the coast of the Adriatic and Ionian seas. The strait of Otranto separates Albania from Italy. In the northeast it borders with Serbia, partly recognized as the Republic of Kosovo [5], in the northwest with Montenegro, in the east with the Republic of Macedonia, in the southeast with Greece.

Albania has been a member of NATO since 2009. Official candidate for EU membership (since 2014) [6]. Content

Main article: Albania (toponym)

According to one of the versions, the self-name of the country, Shqipëria, comes from the Albanian word “shqip” - “to express a thought” [7]. Slavist A. M. Selishchev [8] argued that the source of this root is the word “shqe” - “Slavs” (Shqerí - from the Albanian shqa

Main article: History of Albania Early history [edit | edit code]

The oldest population of Albania is considered to be the Pelasgians who inhabited the territory of the country during the Neolithic times. Starting from the 2nd millennium BC. er traces of Illyrians who lived in self-governing communities until the 6th century are traced in the country. The southern part of Albania was subject to considerable cultural influence by the Greeks, Greek settlements were established there. In the IV — III centuries BC. er Illyrian tribes Ardian, Enkleev and Taulant form the first state formations.

In 229 BC. er The Roman Empire began the war against the Illyrian pirates, who were defeated in 167 BC. e., and finally conquered by the emperor Tiberius in 9 AD er Tiberius created the region of Illyria with an imperial legate at the head.

In the I century AD er Christianity gradually penetrated into Illyria. [9] The Middle Ages [edit | edit code]

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the territory of Illyria underwent invasions of barbarians (Huns, Avars, Slavs), who migrated from the east during the Great Migration. In the 9th — 10th centuries, the Byzantine theme called Dyrrahiy, which included some lands of modern Albania, captured the Bulgarian kingdom, which itself fell in 998–1019 under the rule of Byzantium.

In 1050, the north of Albania became part of the Serbian principality, and the Normans of the Kingdom of Sicily ruled the coast. In 1180 the Serbs captured Shkoder. In 1190, the first Albanian state was formed, the Arberian Principate. In 1200, the Bulgarians (who were near Byzantium) conquered eastern Albania.

After the 4th crusade and the fall of Constantinople in 1204, wars were constantly in progress in Albania. Some territories of modern Albania were alternately dominated by the Venetians, the Empire of Epirus, the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Serbia.

During the years 1336–1355, the Serbian kingdom, led by King Stephen Dusan, conquered the entire territory of the Albanian kingdom.

From 1381 began the conquest of the territory of Albania by the Ottoman Empire. Albania has been under its rule for almost 500 years. The Albanian population resisted the introduction of Turkish traditions, and popular uprisings sometimes occurred. Independent Albania [edit | edit code]

In November 1908, after the overthrow of Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, the first national congress was held in Bitola. In 1910, a rebellion broke out in the north of Albania. The following year, a new uprising set out to gain autonomy for Albania. In the spring of 1912 there was a popular uprising, the rebels captured Skopje, Dibru, Elbasan, Permeti. August 23, a truce was declared; The Albanian people were granted a certain autonomy, but administrative autonomy was never consolidated.

In October 1912, the first Balkan war began. On November 28, in the city of Vlore, a congress of representatives of various segments of the population declared Albania an independent state and formed the first provisional government.

In 1912–1913, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Russia, and France recognized autonomy at first, and then Albania’s independence from Turkey.

The first parliament of Albania was created in 1920, during the struggle for the country's independence and against its division in the Paris world between Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia.

In 1928, the parliament was dissolved, Albania proclaimed kingdom. World War II [edit | edit code]

In April 1939, Italy occupied Albania, King Zogu Ahmet fled the country.

The resistance movement was led by pro-communist forces. In November 1941, a single CPA structure was created, which was to lead the liberation struggle. In September 1942, a congress of progressive forces, which opposed the occupation, was held in Big Peze. The General National Liberation Council was created, which was supposed to lead the liberation movement. He became the governing body of the National Liberation Front. In July 1943, the General Council of the National Liberation Front decided to organize the General Staff of the National Liberation Army. In May 1944, the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee was formed at the 1st Anti-Fascist National Liberation Congress, to which the functions of the provisional government were transferred. In 1944, universal suffrage was introduced. Socialist Albania [edit | edit code]

In 1945, parliamentary elections were held in which the Democratic Front headed by the Communists won 97.7% of the vote (other political forces did not participate in the elections). Gradually, power concentrated Enver Hoxha in his hands, brutally cracking down on his political rivals. Until 1956, Albania maintained relations with the USSR in opposition to Yugoslavia, but after the 20th Congress of the CPSU, a policy of political isolation was adopted. Relations were maintained only with China and Romania. In 1968, in protest against Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia, Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. The country lived in constant readiness for war: each family was obliged to build a bomb shelter. Were banned religion, wearing a beard. In 1967, Albania was proclaimed an atheistic state.

In 1978, cooperation with China was sharply curtailed.

After the death of Enver Hoxha in 1985, the new leader Ramiz Alia began a policy of radical economic reform and expansion of relations with other countries. Modern Albania [edit | edit code]

In 1990-1992, the communist regime fell in Albania. The country has moved to a multiparty system and a market economy. Power in Albania was alternately replaced by the Socialist Party of Albania (represents mainly the industrialized southern regions, the leader is Edi Rama) and the Democratic Party of Albania (represents mainly the North of the country, the leader is Sali Berisha). An attempt was made in the country to convict the former leader, Ramiz Alia, but as a result of the street riots he was released from prison. In 1997, riots broke out in the country due to the bankruptcy of the financial pyramids of Albania, which subsequently led to the use of the army and the change of power.

Since April 1, 2009, Albania is a member of NATO.

On April 29, 2009, Albania officially appealed to the European Union with a request to be admitted to membership in this organization [10].

Ismail Kemali, hero of the independence of Albania (1912–14)

President (1924–28)
and the king (1928–39)
Ahmet Zogu

Main article: Government of Albania Executive [edit | edit code]

Main articles: Albanian President, Albanian Government

Albania is a parliamentary republic. The formal head of state is the president (Kryetarët), elected by the parliament for a term of for 5 years. The same person may not hold the presidency for more than two terms. Since July 24, 2017, the President is Ilir Mehta.

The executive body - the Council of Ministers (Këshilli i Ministrave), consisting of the Chief Minister (Kryeministër) and ministers, includes the following ministries: public works, transport and telecommunications education and environmental science, administration of forest and water resources of agriculture, nutrition and protection of the rights of consumers of social and labor affairs and equal opportunities of tourism, culture, youth and sports, finance, economy, trade and energy of justice foreign affairs defense innovations and information and communication technologies health care european interior integration

Legislature [edit | edit code]

Main article: National Assembly of Albania

The supreme legislative body of Albania is the Parliament - the unicameral National Assembly (Al. Kuvendi i Shqipërisë), consisting of 140 members. 100 deputies are elected by the majority system in single-member constituencies (in two rounds), 40 by party lists with a four-percent barrier. The term of office of deputies is 4 years. Judicial authority [edit | edit code]

The body of constitutional oversight is the Constitutional Court (Gjykata Kushtetuese), the highest court is the Supreme Court (Gjykata e Lartë), the body of the prosecutor’s supervision is the General Prosecutor’s Office (Prokuroria e Përgjithshme), the body for selecting candidates for the posts of judges is the High Council of Justice (Këilléhäshme), the High Council of Justice (Këéshöshme), the body for the selection of candidates for judges ’office is the High Council of Justice (Këöshöshme), the authority for selection of candidates for the posts of judges is the High Council of Justice (Këöshöshme); i Drejtësisë), the body for organizing the conduct of elections is the Central Election Commission (Komisioni Qendror i Zgjedhjeve). Administrative Map of Albania

Main article: Administrative division of Albania

The territory of Albania is divided into 12 regions (alb. Qark, plural. - qarqe), which were previously divided into 36 districts (alb. Rreth, plural. - rrethe), (reti) and 373 municipalities. Each district had its own Council, consisting of several municipalities. In 2015, the administrative-territorial reform was carried out, as a result of which the administrative division changed, the number of regions remained the same, but now they are divided into 61 municipalities, which include communes [11].

Main article: Population of Albania

The population size is 2,831,741 (2011 census) [12], while the population of the 2001 census was 3,069,275 people, the population decreased by 7.7% over ten years. The main reason for the decline in population is large-scale migration and fertility decline.

Resident population: 1,421,810 males - 50.2%, 1,409,931 females - 49.8% [12].

The annual increase is 0.3% (high level of emigration from the country) [13].

The urban population is 53.7% (data for 2011 [12]), the rural population is 46.3%. For the first time in the census history (2011), there are more Albanians living in cities than in rural areas.

Ethnic composition: Albanians - 95%, Greeks - 3%, others (Romanians, Gypsies, Serbs, Macedonians) - 2%. Religion [edit | edit code]

Main article: Religion in Albania

At the beginning of the 20th century, the ratio between Christians and Muslims in Albania was almost equal - 47% of Catholics and Orthodox, 53% of Muslims [14]. In 2010, according to J.G. Melton's Encyclopedia of Religions, Muslims made up 63% of the population of Albania, Christians 31%, non-believers and atheists 5% [15]. Islam is represented by Sunnis and Bektashs. Christians are divided into two approximately equal groups - Catholics (490 thousand) and Orthodox (475 thousand). Most of the Protestants (20,000) are members of various Pentecostal churches.

According to the US Department of State, the proportion of people who actively participate in religious life and services in churches ranges from 25 to 40% [16]. Map of Albania

Main articles: Geography of Albania, Albanian Minerals

The total area of ​​Albania is 28,748 km². The 362 km long coast is washed by the Adriatic and Ionian seas. In the western part there is a lowland area, the rest (about 70%) is mountainous and wooded areas. The highest Point - Mount Korab (2753 m) in Dibra Prefecture. The climate of the coastal part of the country is Mediterranean, turning east to continental. The average January temperature is + 8–9 ° C, July - + 24–25 ° C. Rainfall - 800-2000 mm per year.

The largest river in Albania Drin flows through the northern regions of the country. Other rivers include Mati, Vios, Shkumbini and Semani. The three largest and deepest lakes of the Balkan Peninsula are partially located in Albania. Lake Shkodra (Skadar), the third part of which and 57 km of the coast belongs to Albania, is located in the north of the country, on the border with Montenegro. Divided between Albania and the Republic of Macedonia, the Ohrid Lake has a depth of 289 m and unique flora and fauna, which is under the protection of UNESCO. Lake Prespa is located slightly to the south and is divided between Albania, Macedonia and Greece.

There are more than 3 thousand flora representatives. On the coast, maquis is spread, about a third of the territory of Albania (mainly mountainous areas) is covered with forest, which is inhabited by brown bears, wolves, jackals, lynx and forest cats, as well as wild boars, roe deer and . There are many water birds in the coastal areas.

There are deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, and nickel in the territory of Albania. Climate [edit | edit code]

In Albania, a mild Mediterranean climate with rather hot and dry summers and cool, wet winters. The average July temperature on the coast is from +28 to + 32 ° С, in January - from +8 to + 10 ° С. High summer temperatures are easily transferred to the coast due to the constantly blowing Mediterranean breeze. The tourist season lasts from May to September, but it is also comfortable to be in the air in April and October. About 300 sunny days a year. In early spring and late autumn it rains. In the mountains of Albania, the climate is much colder - in winter the temperature can drop to −20 ° C.

Main article: Culture of Albania Holidays [edit | edit code] Republic Day is one of the most significant national holidays in the country, which is celebrated annually on January 11, starting in 1946 [17]. Albanian Independence Day - celebrated on November 28th. As a rule, gala evenings in honor of this day are arranged by diplomatic missions in various countries. The Day of the Beatification of Mother Teresa is celebrated on October 19 as a national holiday. Architecture and visual arts [edit | edit code]

Secular Albanian painting arose only at the end of the XIX century, its formation is primarily associated with the name of Kola Idromeno (1860-1939). The heyday of Albanian painting falls on the interwar period, when several art schools appeared at once. The largest of them was Shkodra, led by Zeph Colombi.

During the reign of Enver Hoxha, the principle of social realism dominated the visual arts of Albania. These were the dictator's own convictions, imposed and imposed on him in his country: “Albanians do not have idols and gods, but there are ideals - this is the name and cause of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin.” At the same time, the cult of the individual and Enver Hoxha himself was present and widely encouraged. In Albania, many canvases of famous painters have been preserved, depicting the image of the country's leader in their canvases: "The flesh of the flesh of its people", art. - Zef Shoshi (Zef Shoshi), 1976; "The party is founded", art. - Shaban Hussa (Shaban Hysa), 1974; "With thoughts about the struggle for a brighter future," thin. - S. Shola (S. Sholla), 1976; "January 11, 1946", art. - V. Kilitsa (V. Kilica, on this day the Constituent Assembly, elected during the country's first democratic elections, expressing the will of the people, unanimously proclaimed Albania as the People's Republic and chose a new government headed by Comrade Enver Hoxha); "Proclamation of the Republic", art. - Fatmir Haxhiu, 1974; “Conversation with the locals” (Kucakë, summer 1943); "Proclamation of the Republic", art. - Fatmir Haxhiu, 1974

The most illustrative and widely available example of Albanian socialist realism of that time is the colorful panel “Shqiptarët” (1981) located on the facade of the building of the National Historical Museum (Muzeu Historik Kombëtar) on Skanderbeg Square, executed in strict traditions of socialist realism. The panel shows a collective image of the history of the struggle of the Albanian people for their independence. Here you can see all the stages of this struggle: the warriors of Skanderbeg, the creation of a national language and writing, the Red soldiers Partisan brigades ... The central part of the panel is the figure of the defender of the motherland with the national flag of Albania in her hands, the girl in the national dress (the image of the mother-Albania), who raised her rifle, and an intelligent worker-worker. Bunkers and military fortifications [edit | edit code] Bunker in Albania

Over forty years of Enver Hoxha’s rule, from the end of the Second World War until his death in April 1985, concrete bunkers were built in Albania. It was built over 700 thousand small bunkers, one for 4 inhabitants of the country. They literally strewn the whole country. The density of the bunkers - 24 pieces per square kilometer. Small bunkers were located in groups of 3 or more pieces, in the places of the most likely enemy offensive. Now they can be found everywhere, including in the cities, right in the courtyards of houses. Triple bunker in Albania Dilapidated bunker Bunker Housing

Small bunkers for infantry were not enough; It was built many large, intended for artillery calculation. Such bunkers were located mainly along the sea line and along the borders. In the area of ​​Durres, you can still find such bunkers on the beach, converted into showers, cafes, changing rooms or just warehouses. Some were built hotels and the room inside is used as a warehouse.

In addition to the pillboxes built fortifications for manpower and equipment. Such structures were built mainly in the mountains and hills. According to Khodja's plan, there should have been hidden from air raids of a hypothetical enemy heavy armored vehicles and infantry. Many of them are not finished and remained at the construction stage of a concrete entrance. Now Albanians use them for personal purposes: a warehouse, a pigsty, a household room, a place to set billiards.

Naturally, Enver Hoxha could not help but take care of himself. A main bunker with a length of several hundred meters was built in his hometown Gjirokastra. For the entire party leadership, shelters were made in the capital Tirana, on Mount Daiti.

In addition to the fortifications on the ground, 2 were built on the water. They were built with two entrances and exits, connected by a tunnel with water, and c utility rooms. They were intended for the shelter, repair and equipment of submarines. In one of these facilities was based Soviet intelligence on the Adriatic. A similar underground base of submarines is in the Crimea, in Balaclava. An underground airfield was also built that can accommodate up to 50 airplanes.

In 2012, at the level of the government of the country, it was decided to eliminate these artifacts of the past. From that moment began the dismantling of bunkers. First of all, they are removed from the beaches, cities, roads and places where they can be seen by the tourist. Education [edit | edit code]

Before the establishment of the communist regime in Albania, the illiteracy rate of the population was estimated at about 85%. In the interwar period, the country felt an acute shortage of educational institutions and trained personnel. However, with the coming to power in 1944 of the communist government of Enver Hoxha, the state began to make great efforts to eradicate illiteracy. Strict rules were introduced: everyone between the ages of 12 and 40 who could not read or write had to attend special classes in order to acquire these skills. Since then, the level of illiteracy in the country has decreased markedly [18]. Today, the literacy rate in Albania is estimated at 98.6%: 99.2% among men and 98.3% among women [19]. In the 1990s, the level of educational services has undergone significant changes, primarily due to the massive relocation of Albanians from the village to the city.

The oldest university in Albania, the University of Tirana, was founded in 1957. Theater [edit | edit code]

The origins of the Albanian theater date back to the ancient culture of the Illyrian tribes who lived in the second millennium BC. er on the Balkan Peninsula [20]. Since the beginning of the XIX century amateur theater troupes existed in the cities of Shkodra, Korca, Tirana, Elbasan, Girokastra. The modern art of the theater originated in the years of the anti-fascist struggle in partisan detachments [21]. Cinema [edit | edit code]

Main article: Cinema of Albania

The cinema of Albania, like many other small countries, is of interest almost exclusively to cinema experts. The very specifics of local film production does not imply a wide national film distribution, which, of course, affects the number of films produced.

Only after gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, information about this new art form began to leak into Albania. In 1945, the first cinema institute opened in Albania, which later transformed into the first Albanian film studio, which in 1953 filmed the epic drama “The Great Warrior of Albania Scanderbeg” (in collaboration with the Soviet Mosfilm). This film won an award for directing at the Cannes Film Festival in 1954. Mythology [edit | edit code]

Main article: Albanian mythology

Main article: Albanian economy

Albania is an industrially undeveloped, agrarian country. One of the poorest countries in Europe. For many years it was in international isolation, which prevented the creation of sustainable trade and economic relations with the developed countries of Western Europe, which is currently expressed in the lack of foreign investment in the country's economy.

The volume of GDP in 2013 is $ 12.9 billion ($ 10.52 [22] thousand per capita in PPP, 131st in the world; in Europe it shares the last place with Bosnia-Herzegovina, ahead of Moldova only). Below the poverty line - 25% of the population.

Economic structure in 2009 (share of GDP): agriculture - 20.6%; industry - 18.8%; service sector - 60.6%.

58% of workers are employed in agriculture, 15% in industry, and 27% in the service sector. The unemployment rate is 12% (in 2009).

Agriculture produces: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products.

In industry - food processing, textiles and clothing; wood processing, oil and metal ores, cement production, hydropower. Foreign trade [edit | edit code]

Exports in 2008 - $ 1.3 billion: textiles and shoes; asphalt, metal ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco.

The main buyers: Italy - 55.9%, Greece - 11.6%, China - 7.2%.

Imports in 2008 - $ 4.9 billion: machinery and equipment, food, textiles, chemical products.

The main suppliers: Italy - 32.1%, Greece - 13.1%, Turkey - 7.2%, Germany - 6.6%, China - 4.5%, Russia - 4.2%.

Geographical distribution of Albanian foreign trade (for 2014) [23]: EU countries - 66.0% ($ 5079 million); China - 6.1% ($ 465 million); Turkey - 6.1% ($ 465 million); American countries - 3.8% ($ 294 million); African countries - 1.5% (117 million dollars); Russia - 1.5% (115 million dollars). Transportation [edit | edit code]

On the territory of the country shuttles, buses and trains ply. Shuttle taxis, called here "van" - the most popular form of transport. They are the nine- and twelve-seat mini-buses of white and red coloring, set off when all the seats are occupied. In each city there is one or more stations "vans".

Municipal buses depart as scheduled. They also run, mainly, up to 3-4 hours of the day.

Between the cities of Albania, you can move by train. The railway communication connects Tirana, Durres, Shkodra, Pogradets, Vlora and Elbasan. The busiest traffic between Tirana and Durres is up to six trains per day. On the other directions, there are one or two trains per day. Telephony [edit | edit code]

There are three mobile operators in the country: Eagle Mobile, Vodafone and AMC Mobile. Albania, European // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: 86 tons (82 tons and 4 extra). - SPb., 1890-1907. Tale of Scanderbeg. M., 1957 (Literary Monuments). Senkevich I. G. The Liberation Movement of the Albanian People in 1905–1912 M .: 1959. N. D. Smirnova. Formation of the People’s Republic of Albania (1939–1946). M .: 1960. Arsh G. L. Albania and Epirus at the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX century. M .: 1963. Senkevich I. G. Albania in the period of East crisis. M .: 1965. N. D. Smirnova. The Balkan policy of fascist Italy. Essay on diplomatic history (1936-1941). M .: 1969. N. D. Smirnova. Italian Politics in the Balkans. Sketch of diplomatic history. 1922-1935 M .: 1979. G. L. Arsh, Yu. V. Ivanova, O. A. Kolpakova, N. D. Smirnova. Brief history of Albania. M .: 1992. N. D. Smirnov. The history of Albania in the XX century. M .: 2003. Yu. V. Ivanova. Albanians and their neighbors. M .: Nauka, 2006. V. Mudrov. The land of fire birds. К .: LLC Andronum Publishing Union, 2016. мира Atlas of the World: The most detailed information / Project leaders: A.N. Bushnev, A.P. Pritvorov. - Moscow: AST, 2017. - p. 25. - 96 p. - ISBN 978-5-17-10261-4. ↑ CIA World Factbook ↑ Human Development Report 2014 (Eng.). United Nations Development Program. - Human Development Report (2014) on the UN Development Program website. Checked October 27, 2015. ↑ States and territories of the world. Reference // Atlas of the world / comp. and prepare. to ed. PKO "Cartography" in 2009; Ch. ed. G. V. Pozdnyak. - M.: PKO "Cartography": Onyx, 2010. - p. 14. - ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (Cartography). - ISBN 978-5-488-02609-4 (Onyx). ↑ Albania recognizes independent Kosovo ↑ Albanians ↑ A. Selischev, Slavic population in Albania, Sofia, 1931 ↑ Encyclopedia "Krugosvet" Albania ↑ Albanien will in die EU (him.) ↑ Counties of Albania (English) ↑ 1 2 3 2011 Census ↑ Natural movement of the population of Albania ↑ E. Barbarich, Albanie, Enrico Voghera ed., Rome, 1905 J. Gordon Melton. Albania // Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices / J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann. - Oxford, England: ABC CLIO, 2010. - p. 61-65. - 3200 s. - ISBN 1-57607-223-1. ↑, Freedom of Religion 2007 ↑ Holidays of Albania in the project holidays 2010 ↑ Zickel, Iwaskiw, 1994 CIA World Factbook: Albania эн Theatrical encyclopedia. Ch. ed. S.S. Mokulsky M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1961, Volume 1 ↑ Great Russian Encyclopedia: In 30 t. / Chairman of the Scientific-Ed. Council Yu. S. Osipov. Ed. Edited by S. L. Kravets. T. 1. A - Questioning. - M .: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2005. - 766 pp .: ill .: maps. ↑ World Development Indicators: Albania. ↑ Maksakova M. А. Tendencies of development of economic cooperation between Russia and the countries of the Western Balkans. Thesis for the degree of candidate of economic sciences. - M., 2015. - P. 40 - 41. Access mode:

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