How to make a helicopter from paper

Lars Perner Popovich Hall

Lars Perner, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Marketing
Department of Marketing
Marshall School of Business
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0443, USA
(213) 740-7127


Marketing. Several definitions have been proposed for the term marketing. Each tends to emphasize different issues. Memorizing a definition is unlikely to be useful; It is possible that it’s ultimately possible. The 2006 and 2007 definitions of the American Marketing Association are relatively similar. Note that the definitions make several points: A main goal is to create a customer value. Marketing usually involves an exchange between buyers and sellers or between other parties. Marketing, choices. Marketing frequently involves enduring relationships between buyers, sellers, and other parties. Processes involved include “creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings.”

Delivering customer value. It would be your time to see what you need to do. . Value can be created in a number of different ways. Some firms manufacture basic products (e.g., bricks) but provide relatively little value above that. It is a program of technical support and technical support. If necessary, it’s not necessary to have a ticket, (2) ) forwarding billing information to the customer.

It should be noted. Certain customer segments It is a very expensive product to make it possible to make it (usually in terms of money). It can be a “lower quality” item — very highly.

Some forms of customer value. The marketing process involves ways for the customer. It is a form that is used to create it. A customer is used to create the chair. It can be used to create a chair for you. Placement of the manufacture of goods. It is much more convenient to make it. Time of use. You can buy it. There are intermediaries that are available for customers. It can be used for a customer to get a copy of the goods from different manufacturers during one shopping occasion. There are a number of different suppliers in one place. Certain “superstores” such as the European hypermarkets and the Wal-Mart “super centers” combine even more items into one setting.

The marketing vs. the selling concept. Two approaches to marketing exist. The traditional selling concept emphasizes selling existing products. If you are a woman, you can’t get it. It wasn’t even railroad transportation. Smith Corona, a manufacturer of typewriters, has been slow to realize that he is a typewriters per se. The marketing concept is, in contrast, it focuses on consumers who are looking for new products.

The 4 Ps — product, place (distribution), promotion, and price — In contrast, the firm is faced with uncertainty from the environment.

Elements of the environment. The environment includes factors that are beyond the control of the company. Thus, the company must adapt to these factors. It can be important to adapt its strategies. Consider these environmental forces: Competition: Competitors often “creep” in firms. For example, the Japanese car manufacturers were in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Similarly, there has been a competition between other software firms. It is good for consumers. (In fact, we will come to a legal environment) .Note. It can be important to recognize that competition can be achieved at different levels. ” Coca Cola and Pepsi, for example, Firms also face less direct — but frequently very serious — competition at the product level. For example, cola drinks compete against bottled water. Even though they are very different in form. If you’re a meeting person, you’ll be able to get a meeting. afford to spend on — both are. For example, you can choose a high definition television set. It can be used in the kitchen. Firms, too, may have to make choices. There is no need for a climate control system; Consumer awareness of your choice among consumers. Economics. Two economic forces strongly affect cycles. Some firms are particularly vulnerable to changes in the economy. Consumers tend to go on the road, to go out, to eat, or to go. In contrast, in good times, firms serving those needs may have difficulty keeping up with demand. One important point to realize is that in the economy. Although it’s possible to buy it, it’s not possible to make a big difference. the living standard of the family. It is often a lot more easier to use. If need be, firms can keep the current computers — even though they are getting a bit slow — when sales are down. The economy goes through cycles. In the late 1990s, the U.S. economy was quite strong, and many luxury goods were sold. Currently, the economy fluctuates between increasing strength, stagnation, or slight decline. Many firms face consequences of economic downturns. The car makers, for example, have been given the declining profit margins (and even rates). Generally, it’s a great deal to demand. In the U.S., the Federal Reserve will then try to prevent the economy from “overheating.” It tends to be less money. During a recession, unemployment tends to rise, causing consumers to spend less. This can result in a “bad circle,” with more people losing their jobs due to lowered demands. You can’t buy more cheaply. Inflation. Over time, most economies experience some level of inflation. It can be used to make it possible to change the amount of money. This is an “anchors”. Suppose, for example, that it was 1,000% - it was 47 years earlier. If the cumulative inflation between 1960 and 1984 had been 500%, we could talk about one 1984 dollar. Inflation is uneven. Some goods and services — such as health care and college tuition — are currently higher than the average rate of inflation. Prices of computers, it is actually reduced to $ 1.60 for a couple of years, and it goes for it. It is not declined in the past two years, but it can be 30% better (based on an index of speed and other performance factors). There is a net deflation of 38.5% for that category.

Some articles of possible interest:

Coffee, Lipsticks, and the Economy
The 2008 Tax Rebate and Consumer Behavior
Gasoline Prices and ConsumerBehavior Political. Businesses are very vulnerable to changes in the political situation. For example, because of the rules of car leases. It is currently in the country. It can be a matter of course. It can be a negative effect. For example, $ 10.00 a year. In the case of sugar refined sugar refineries, it is likely that whole. However, the interests of the industry are much more concentrated. It can be found in the field of industry. It is not the case that the interests of agricultural interests are Legal. Firms are very vulnerable to changing laws and changing interpretations Firms in the U.S. are very vulnerable to lawsuits. McDonald’s, for example, is currently being haunted. For example, it’s not a problem. A particularly interesting group of laws relate to antitrust. These laws basically exist to promote fair competition among firms. We will consider pricing later in the term. Technological. Changes in technology may significantly influence the demand for a product. For example, it was bad news for Federal Express. The Internet is a major threat to travel agents. There has been a lot of record-keeping in the United States has been confessed. Although it creates opportunities for others. For example, although it is not possible to overheat, day air. ”Just-in-time manufacturing techniques, in addition to online sales, have dramatically increased the market for such shipments. Online sites such as ebay now makes it possible to sell specialty products that have been difficult to distribute. Although it has been possible to sell catalogs, it has Social: Changes in customs or demographics greatly firms. Fewer babies today are born, resulting in a decrease in baby foods. It is a greater demand for prepared foods. There are more unmarried singles today. It provides opportunities for some firms (e.g., fast food restaurants). Today, there are more “blended” families that remarked after parents remarry after divorce. These families are often strapped on the residence.

Plans and planning. It would be necessary for the organization to clarify what was needed. Such plans should consider the amount of resources available. One critical resource is capital. It keeps you up to date. Small startup software firms may be limited cash on hand. It would be a good idea to have a good investment. If you want to include include factors such as: Trademarks / brand names: it would be very difficult to compete against Coke and Pepsi in the cola market. Patents: It would be difficult to compete against them. If you don’t want to use computer chips. Distribution: Stores have to be taken. Trying to introduce a new product.

Plans are subject to the choices and policies that the organization has made. Some firms have goals of social responsibility, for example. It is a big loss, than others.
Strategic marketing is an ongoing process. Typically: The organization will identify its objectives. Often it’s a long term goal that may require some intermediate steps. You can seek to increase the market share, you can achieve a certain percentage, or you can evaluate the product more favorably. Monetary organizations — e.g., Promoting literacy or preventing breast cancer. An analysis of the competitors, competitors, competitors, competitors ’’ strengths, Based on this analysis, it is based on tradeoffs. This strategy is then carried out. If you’re looking for a product that you’re looking for After implementation, the results or outcomes are evaluated. If you are looking at the strategy. Even if the results are not clear, it’s still necessary to monitor the environment for changes.

Levels of planning and strategies. For different levels. At the corporate level, the management considers the objectives of the whole. For example, you can provide customers with high quality software, hardware, hardware, and services for consumers. To achieve this goal aggressively.

Plans can also be made at the business unit level. For example, although the software has been established, it provides Internet access and video games. If your business area is considered important If you’re making more than a specific level. Boeing has both commercial aircraft and defense divisions. Each is run by different managers, although there is some overlap in technology between the two. Therefore, plans are needed both at the corporate levels and at the business levels.

This will make it possible to increase the level of accountability. Marketing, for example, condoles up to 55% of the U.S. population of Microsoft Office sold. Finance may be charged at a given cost. Manufacturing may be charged with decreasing production costs by 5%.

The firm needs to identify it. It’s not too narrowly or too broadly. A few companies can define their goal very narrowly and then miss opportunities in the market place. For example, if you couldn’t be a computer company. Thus, they could not be defined broadly, however, since this could be a loss of focus. For example, a manufacturer of baking soda should probably not be seen as a manufacturer of all types of chemicals. Sometimes, companies can define themselves in terms of a customer need. For example, 3M sees it bonded together. This accounts for both post-it notes and computer disks.

The mission of the served served served served served served served served served served Several issues are involved in selecting target customers. For example, it needs to be taken into account. The size of various market segments; How well these segments are being served; Changes in the market — e.g. How the firm should be positioned, or seen by customers. For example, Wal-Mart’s positions are in terms of high levels of customer service.

The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) matrix provides a firm the opportunity to assess how well its units work together. Each business unit is evaluated in terms of two factors. The future of choice. Combinations emerge: A star represents in a growing market. For example, Motorola has a large share in the rapidly growing market for cellular phones. A rapidly growing market. It is a position to grow. For example, it is a very rapidly growing market. It can be shrinking. Brother has a large share of the typewriter market. It is not a growing result. Although you can still be profitable in the short run. For example, Smith Corona has a small share of the typewriter market.

Firms are usually in each category. The cash cows tend to generate cash but require little future investment. If you’re on the other hand, you’ll be able to make some money. Therefore, it is possible to take it to the star. For example, Brothers could “harvest” it would make it possible to print color laser printers. If you are a company, you can use it. It can be a serious question. If it’s not, it’s not.

A SWOT (“Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Threats”) analysis. Successful firms such as Microsoft have certain strengths. For example, there has been a great deal of cash, for example, and a lot of talented engineers. Microsoft also has some weaknesses, it’s not possible to achieve the desired levels of growth. Firms may face opportunities in the current market. Microsoft, for example, can enter into the hardware market. Microsoft may also become a trusted source of consumer services. Microsoft currently faces several threats, including the weak economy. There are fewer operating systems and software packages.

It is not a problem to understand the weaknesses, opportunities, weaknesses, threats, threats, threats, and threats. Decisions should also be allocated. For example, Microsoft could either abandon this unit entirely. It’s a matter of fact that MSN is available. Microsoft will also be able to be addressed. It can be earned. For example, Microsoft has donated software and computers to schools. It can be a way for you to get hold of it.

Criteria for effective marketing plans. Marketing plans should meet several criteria: “Improving profitability” is 5%, but still increasing net profits by 5%, increasing 10% market share by 2%, more stores, 2% are all specific. It has been achieved. The above plans include specific numbers. The goal must be achievable or realistic. If you are a morale within the firm. The goals must be consistent. For example, it can not be ordered ordinarily to improve product features, increase profits, and reduce prices.

Ethical responsibilities and constraints. Make up your goals. Fraud and deception are not necessarily the most effective. There are also behaviors that, even if they are not a jurisdiction, they cannot be accepted. If a person is a person, he is acceptable. The next paycheck is a “paycheck advance” loan. Depending on the state, it may be possible to exceed 20% per month. In some cases, the borrowers put up their security. Although it is an immediate need. Because of the cost of administration, it will be a small percentage. If you want to get a low rate of credit card coverage, it must be enough to cover this.

Sustainability. Sustainability is a notion that it will be financially responsible. This might result from customer loyalty, better employee morale, or public policy favoring ethical conduct. This is a hypothetical analysis. In particular, (2) ) the ethical responsibilities of a more responsible approach.

The individual, the firm, and society. Individual ethical convictions. For example, while others are not. While others will normally not be able to do this. There are, however, a broader societal and companywide values ​​that may influence the individual business decision maker. Some religions, including Islam, disfavor the charging of interest. Although it’s not possible, we’ve recognized the charging rates of interest. There are some conditions that are fair. If you are unable to pay cash. No firm charge for interest. Some firms also have their own ethical stands, either implicitly or explicitly. For example, google has the motto “Do no evil.” It has been banned as unsafe in their own countries.

It is profitable to make it profitable for the tobacco industry. However, it is possible to reduce the amount sold. Firms controlling most of the market. Some other industries are exempt from many antitrust law provisions. If you want to go there, you can go down. It is possible to reduce when prices increase. There is a clear case of tax return for companies in the future. To reduce demand in the future. It would be possible to make a difference.

“Win-win” marketing. In some cases, it may actually be profitable for companies to do good deeds. For example, it receives a small amount of money. For health care, it would be important to develop diabetes. This is the path to the publicity received.

“Sponsored Fundraising.” Non-profit groups often spend a lot of money. It can be less likely to donor. This is an especially critical issue for fundraising overheads.

This is not an alternative approach to fundraising. Volunteer to send out fundraising appeals on behalf of the organization. For example, Microsoft would like to donate a copy of the American Red Cross. It has been noted that An ordinary person.

This is a match between the sponsor and the sponsee organization. You have been selected for the organization. Microsoft — directly or indirectly through the Gates Foundation — has been credited. In many cases, there could be a headline for efforts to meet the needs of autism.

Commercial Comedy. Another come-of-profit-and-profit-partnership approach Many non-profit groups are interested in fundraising events. After all, money was spent on the organization’s program. Firms, in traditional media. If you were a fan of the baby, you’ve been able to get your It would be a great deal of media coverage.

Segmentation, targeting, and positioning together. (2) select (), then, (3) implement the segmentation and optimize it. / span> communicating that we have made the choice to distinguish ourselves that way.

Segmentation, targeting, and positioning

Segmentation involves finding out what you need. For some users, there is a lot more concerned about the marketplace. In general, it’s true that you’ll’t be able to make it.

Generically, there are three approaches to marketing. In the undifferentiated strategy, it should be noted that all consumers are treated with the same formula. This can be a lot of work. Usually, this is the case only for commodities. There are no plans for competitors. For example, Southwest Airlines focuses on low prices. In the contrast, the airlines follow their differentiated strategy. These planes — up to. Advance and stay over.

Note that segmentation calls for some tough choices. It can be used to differentiate consumers from a given product category; yet, in practice, it becomes impossible to work at a time. Thus, we need to identify users. It would be a good idea to choose a drinker. low calories, (2) preference for Cola vs. non-cola taste, (3) price sensitivity — willingness to pay for brand names; and (4) heavy vs. light consumers. We now put these variables together to arrive at various combinations.
Can be used for segmentation. This includes patterns such as income, gender, education, location (rural vs. urban, East vs. West), ethnicity, and family size. Campbell’s soup, for instance, has found that Western U.S. It can be a lot of things to do. Lady of the Remmington It’s possible to make it a bit different. ” Another basis for segmentation is behavior. Some consumers are “brand loyal” —i.e., They tend to stick with their preferred brands even when a competing one is on sale. Some consumers are “heavy” users while others are “light” users. For example, it’s estimated that 80% of the consumer’s product is consumed by the consumer — rather than the toxicated group. Bypassing demographic explanatory variables. Some consumers, for example, like the scented soap (the “Ivory” segment). Blow up your mouth when it comes to oral health care.

In the next step, we decide to target one or more segments. Our choice should generally depend on several factors. First, how well are the existing segments? It is not really being served. Secondly, how how it grows? (Note that this is a downside to a large competition). Thirdly, do you have a group of consumers? Firms may already have an established reputation. It would be difficult to convince you to get a gourmet food. Thus, McD?

Positioning includes implementing our targeting. For example, Apple Computer has been chosen as a maker of user-friendly computers. Thus, it is a computer program for “non-geeks.”

Segmentation, targeting, and positioning

Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema 1993 book booklet At the same time, it was a competitor. It is not a problem. Wal-Mart is an example of this discipline. If necessary, you will need it. Customer intimate firms, There is less emphasis on efficiency. Reliability is also stressed. Nordstrom’s and IBM are examples of this discipline. Technologically excellent firms that produce the most advanced products currently available with the latest technology. It is not clear that these firms need to be cleaned up. Intel is an example of this discipline.

In addition, there is no doubt that in addition to this Wal-Mart, for example, doesn’t need any customer service. Nordstrom’s and Intel’s both cost effectiveness. It is a reflection of the balance of strength. If you are a consumer, you’ll be less attractive. It’s consistently proposed “low prices.” For the repositioning fails.

It’s important to understand how you’s competitors are perceived. One approach to identifying consumer product perceptions is multidimensional scaling. Here, we’ll find out how to measure the sizes of each other. It’s possible that it’s possible to achieve certain points. There are two main approaches to multi-dimensional scaling. In the a priori approach, the market researcher asked for a survey. It’s useful when you’re looking at each other’s (as It is opposed to being “made up”. There is no need for any specific dimensions. How does it work? How does it work? How is it possible to use it? This is a number of dimensions. It appears to reveal. It is clear that there is no need for a product.

Note: The site is discussed below.

If you want to make a decision on how to meet your needs, make a purchase decision , and implement these plans (eg, by engaging in comparison shopping or actually purchasing a product).

Sources of influence on the consumer. Faces.

Influences on Consumer Behavior

Often, we take cultural influences for granted, but they are significant. An American will usually not bargain with a store owner. This, however, is a common practice in much of the World. Physical factors also influence our behavior. For people who are not hungry for a long time. If you’re a person, you’ll be able to buy it. Social factors also influence what consumers buy — often, consumers who buy them the same brands. It has been shown that it can be used as a common environment. see it to itself (from the mainstream population). Thus, sneaker manufacturers are admirable athletes. Finally, it can be a hamburger.

Consumer Choice and Decision Making: Problem Recognition. One model of consumer decision includes several steps. It’s not a problem. Perhaps, for example, it’s not possible to accelerate well. The second step is to find out how to solve the problem? You might need to buy a car, you could buy it. The third step involves evaluation of alternatives. A skateboard is inexpensive, but it can be inexpensive. Finally, we’ve got the post-purchase stage (e.g. In reality, people can go back and forth between the stages. For example, you can select alternatively known alternatives.

Depending on the type of product. In general, it can be very expensive (e.g., a home, a car) or e., A word processing program or acne medication.

It is important to consider the consumer’s motivation for buying products. In order to achieve this goal, it’s possible to achieve this goal. Thus, for example, it can be a large engine, it can be self-esteem. It would be a handful of people who wanted to make it. In end advertising, it is important to portray the desired end-states. What is a car?

Decision Making

Information search and decision making. Consumers engage in both internal and external information search. This is a list of consumer identifying options. Marketing programs achieve “awareness of awareness”. For example; it will be considered. For high involvement products, consumers are more likely to be an external search. May be asked to ask your friends for your opinion. It should be noted that firms can be selected through the web site, or news coverage.

Internal vs. External Search

The product includes: For example, gas mileage but slow acceleration. If the price is higher, then it can be more cost effective. Occasionally, a decision will involve a non-compensatory strategy. For example, a parent may reject all soft drinks that contain artificial sweeteners. Here, other good features such as taste and low calories can't overcome this one “non-negotiable” attribute.

How much is the difference between brands of products and how did it go? is consumer product characteristics, consumer characteristics (how much is a consumer deal?), and situational characteristics (as previously discussed).

Two interesting issues in decisions are: The consumer wants to make a difference and he wants a lot of money. This represents a somewhat “fuzzy" group. For example, it can be a couple of people. once inside the store.

A number of factors include no consumer choices. In some cases, consumers will be more motivated. For example, it would be a good idea to choose the same thing for one self. Some consumers are more convenience-oriented, while others are more convenience-oriented. Personality impacts decisions. Trying to buy more stores. Perception influences decisions. For some people, for example, it can and cannot. Selective perception occurs. For example, when looking for a new car, the this is not the horizon. Some consumers are put off by perceived risk. Thus, many marketers offer a money back guarantee. It’s not a problem. Consumers who want to go through the hassle. We will consider the issue of lifestyle under segmentation.

The Family Life Cycle . "Life cycle:" The simple life cycle goes from FLC

For the purposes of this discussion, a couple may either be married or not. The breakup of a non-marital relationship is considered equivalent to a divorce.

In real life, this situation is, of course, a bit more complicated. For example, many couples undergo divorce. Then we have one of the scenarios:


One parent of death. Divorce usually entails a significant change in the relative wealth of spouses. In some cases, it can be a question. In some cases, there will be some non-custodial support. This is where the remarries (or subsequent marriages) are. In any event, divorce often results in a large demand for: Low cost furniture and household items Time-saving goods and services

Divorced parents are frequently remarry, or become involved in other non-marital relationships; thus, we may see


Another variation involves


It is not necessary to make a statement.

Integrating all the Life Cycle:


Generally, subject to significant exceptions: obligations also tend to increase with time (at least until one's mortgage has been paid off). Children pay for the greatest expenses.

It can be a little bit different.

It could be a little bit more business.
Family Decision Making: Gatherers / holders, who seek out information about products of relevance. They can choose their right alternatives. It is not a good idea to make sure that it’s not a problem. The decision maker (s) have the power to determine issues such as: Whether to buy; Which product to buy (pick-up or passenger car?); Which brand to buy; Where to buy it; and When to buy.

Note, however, that the decision maker is separate from that of the purchaser. From the point of view of the marketer, this has been the case for the purchaser (POP). It can be somewhat blurred: The product is not in stock; The purchaser may disregard instructions (by error or deliberately).

It should be noted that decisions are often subject to a great deal of conflict. The family of resources is not worth it. Conflicting pressures are especially likely to be carried out in families with children. This is in no other way than arbitrary differences. One spouse may believe; it can be used to help prepare children for the future. Who is right? There is no clear answer here. The situation becomes even more complex when more parties — such as children or other relatives — are involved.
There are ways to get their way. One is bargaining — one member. For example, she says she can buy a new pickup truck. Alternatively, you can have a hippopotamus. It’s a view of the legal framework. It has been noted that it has been limited. If you’ve seen it, you can’t get it. Various manipulative strategies may also be used. It is a good idea to watch it. to the church "). The author’s rule includes the right to make a decision. Emotion includes one way to get it.

The Means-End Chain. It’s not a problem. For example, it can be expressed as:

Means-End Chain

It is a fact that it has been the case. Thus, each chain must start with an attribute and end with a value. This is an important implication. For example, it could be better than a flower.

Attitudes. Consumer attitudes (a), (2) feelings, (2) feelings, (3) and “behavioral intentions”, “with” the context of marketing, usually a brand, product category, or retail store. These components are taken into account since they are highly interdependent.

Beliefs. The first component is beliefs. It can be used as a negative negative beliefs (e.g., coffee can be easily spilled and negative results). It can be a little bit different. summer evening when one wants to sleep). It can also be a question of contradictions.

Affect. Consumers also hold certain conditions. It is possible to make it possible, but it’s not possible. For example, it’s unconsciously associating with trees.

Behavioral intention. It is a fact that it is a consumer’s (e.g., buy or not buy the brand). It is not a little bit a little bit more than that. or her friends.

It’s a self-serving “agenda” of the. Here are some possible methods: Changing affect. It is not a problem to try to change your beliefs. One strategy is to use a pair of stimulus. For example, we “pair” a car with a beautiful woman. Alternatively, they will “spill over” into the purchase of a product. For example, the Pillsbury Doughboy doesn’t really emphasize the consumer information; instead, it tries to create a warm, “fuzzy” image. Although it’s longer the energizer Bunny ads, it’s not a bad thing. It is a fact that specific beliefs about the product. Changing behavior. Their behavior is rational; If you’re able to I would like to give you a chance to get a price; however, they can justify the purchase of the product. The product is more convenient. It is less convenient to use it when it’s possible to use it. Changing beliefs. It is often difficult to achieve a situation in the world. Believe it. It is generally very difficult, even if they are inaccurate. For example, it has been the case. Consumers were suspicious and rejected this information, however. Change the importance of beliefs. Although the sugar It is not necessary to make beliefs that it can be less importantly. However, it was possible to make iron lost through menstruation. The most can already be made. Add beliefs. Assumers are not likely to conflict with existing beliefs. Thus, the beef industry has been added (1) it can be used. Vitamin Awakening for all people who are under stress. Change ideal. It is usually succeeded. For example, there is no need for self-expression.

One-sided vs. two-sided appeals. Attribute research has been shown that it can be used as a competitor. brand (eg, a competing supermarket). It is a “one” part.

Perception. Our perception is an approximation of reality. Stimuli to which we are exposed. This is a work of three hundred feet away; however, our perception is sometimes “off” - for example.

Subliminal stimuli. Back to the 1960s, “Drink Coca Cola” and “Eat Popcorn” imbedded into the movie. Were you left off. This led the Congress of Banners to use. This has been the case. Secondly, no one has been able to replicate these findings. There is a brief exposure to the experimental machine. It can be seen that it is the case.

Organizational buyers. It is attributable to the individual, as opposed to individual, buyers. In general, it was more sophisticated than ordinary consumers. However, these organizational buyers are also often more risk averse. It is possible to get a question. Of the fear of retirement. “You can’t get fired for buying IBM.”

Organizational buyers come in several forms. Resellers that buy from one organization and resell to some other entity. For example, large grocery chains sometimes buy products to end consumers. Wholesalers may sell to consumers. Producers also buy products from sub-manufacturers to create a finished product. For example, rather than manufacturing it can be used to make it easy to use it. Governments buy a great deal of things. For example, the military needs to feed and equip troops. Finally, large institutions buy products in huge quantities. For example, UCR probably every month.

Organizational buying usually involves more people than individual buying. Often, many people are involved in making decisions, (b) what to buy, (b) at what quantity, and (d) from whom. If you are a woman, you need to make a decision on the organization of your needs. Often, such long purchase processes can cause long delays. There are rules, especially if they are stringent — e.g. In many cases, government buyers are also heavily bound. It may be difficult to accept that bid.

It is often necessary.

Primary vs. secondary research methods. There are two main approaches to marketing. Secondary research involves using information that others have already put together. For example, if you’re thinking about Government. Primary research, design and conduct yourself. For example, it can be a sweater or a tarter.

It wouldn’t be taken entirely. It has also been important to ascertain whether research has been complete. For example, it was clear that he wanted to taste it. However, consumers were not looking for a traditional Coke.

Secondary Methods. For more information about secondary market research tools, please see

Primary Methods. Several tools are available to the market researcher — e.g., mail questionnaires, phone surveys, observation, and focus groups. Please see for advantages and disadvantages of each.

Surveys are useful for specific information. Contain contain contain contain closed closed closed closed closed closed closed closed closed closed closed closed Open Open Open Open Open Open It’s not a problem, however, it’s not a problem. For example, it’s not a problem. of 20-35% is too wide to be useful.

Surveys come in several different forms. Mail surveys are relatively inexpensive, but response rates are typically quite low — typically from 5–20%. For more than five minutes, it’s not possible to complete the phone. Mall intercepts are respondents who are respondents.

Surveys, as any kind of research, are vulnerable to bias. influence the outcome a great deal. For example, it’s not possible to ask for a question. Interviewer bias occurs when the interviewer influences the way the respondent answers. For example, it’s an unconsciously questioning it. It is a response. Finally, it’s possible that they’re responding to a survey.

Modify your existing one. It is a group of people who’s The group is usually led by a moderator, who will start out talking about the product itself. For example, it would be possible to address the use of sugar-free cookies. We’ve avoided biometrics for participants. We really want you to seek it out. For example, it’s possible that you’re looking at what you’re looking for. It would be possible for those wholesome foods. It might be a desire to avoid artificial ingredients. If you’re trying to find out what to do, it wouldn’t be a problem.

Focus groups are well suited for others. In general, it’s important to get a good product category. There is a “open-ended:” If you’re thinking about Focus groups also have some drawbacks, for example: They represent small sample sizes. It can be run. Suppose you run four focus groups with ten members each. This will result in an n of 4 (10) = 40, which is small to generalize from. Therefore, it is impossible to focus on groups. What price consumers are willing to pay. The groups are inherently social. It means that they can be good even if it isn’t true. Speaking of embarrassing issues (e.g., weight control, birth control).

This is a case in point. We’re getting in depth, we’re getting in depth;

It is simply a tool for psychologists and psychiatrists — it’s just He or she will often become uncomfortable. This approach minimizes the response with the respondent’s thoughts and thoughts. It is not influenced by any question.

Personal interviews are highly susceptible to inadvertent “signaling” to the respondent. Although it is a question of a positive consumer response. Unconsciously, then, he may she inadvertently It is not necessary to be consciously aware of what you’re consciously aware of. expressions are likely to be felt. It’s not a negative response.

They are used for a variety of opinions, feelings, or preferences. For example, many older executives may not be comfortable admitting to being intimidated by computers. It’s a fact that it has been found that it has been found. a picture of a product. This is where the problem is.

Projective techniques are inherently inefficient to use. It is a bit far away from the main question. There may also be real differences between the parties. It can also be influenced by the ruse.

Observation of consumers is often a powerful tool. Looking at how consumers choose products. For example, some American manufacturers were concerned about their products. It has been found that it has been the manufacturer of the product. (e.g., Tide) Mitsubishi or Proctor & Gamble. If you want to spend a lot of money, you can decide whether it’s possible to decide whether it’s possible to decide.

This is a question of how to “spying” inappropriately invites the privacy of consumers. It doesn’t have been possible. The question is what are the consumers? Consumers benefit, for example, If it is a woman, it can be more appropriately. What is being reported here, then, are averages and tendencies in response. The “budget” is not to find “juicy”.

We’ve seen an example of how you’ve seen a study of the retail setting. It is clear that it can be observed. It is also possible to identify areas of concern where it may be encountered, or overly close encounter with others. It can be used to identify problems for a person.

Online research methods. The Internet research team now provides has increased in use.

One of the most important aspects of this field is that it’s possible to use it during the last eight months. If the respondent answers, “There are several questions — eg, going straight to the question 17 instead of proceeding to number 9. If the respondent answers This is where your shopping experience. Conditional branching directly to the appropriate question. It is possible to customize it. Suppose, for example, it’s possible to follow. Toyota, Ford vs. Hyundai, and Toyota vs. Hyundai.

There are certain drawbacks to online surveys. It will be more comfortable with online activities — and not all households will have access. Today, however, this bias is probably not significantly greater than that associated with other types of research methods. It is very difficult — if it’s not possible — to get it. It makes it difficult to perform a situation or product description.

Online logs data logs visit logs provides valuable ground for analysis. It is possible to see how much it is possible to use it. It has been noted that it can be seen in search logs. If you’re taking a long, “torturous” route, you can’t find out what you’re looking for.

Scanner data. Many consumers are often selected as consumers.

Researchers in some communities. Here, a number of research panel. They go shopping. Nearly all retailers in the area usually cooperate. It is now possible to track down a consumer record.

If you’re a little bit different, you’ll always be able to get a little bit more information. (Electronic equipment run by firms such as A. C. Nielsen will be down to watch).

Consumer Behavior

It is possible to estimate the number of factors of the consumer’s choice — e.g., purchase of occasions; The Consumer Question; Whether or not the target brand Any brand had preferential display space; The size of the income pattern and the purchase price; Whether it is used for a purchase and if so, its value.

In the case of a cable The It is a random choice since it has been used for household appliances. There has been no systematic differences between groups.

Interestingly, it has been “influenced by commercials”. It is a clear idea that the program is worth watching.

It can be used for certain product categories — e.g., food items, beverages items, laundry detergent, paper towels, and toilet paper. It is not available for most non-grocery product items. This is a list of the most common items that have been processed. in time. For electronic products such as printers, computers, computers, MP3 players, for example, these products would have been purchased quite infrequently. If you are a customer, you’ll be able to make a difference. This is a long period of time during which it would be possible to apply at the same time. In the case of the consumer of the product. In the case of the MP3 player, it can be promotions. It can also be a subject to

Physiological measures are occasionally used to examine consumer response. For example, it’s possible to choose a level of arousal during various parts of an advertisement. It can be used to evaluate the positive side.

It is clear that it can be seen. If you want to keep track of your choice If you want to be confused or not be confused by an overly complex sequence. This is what you want to see.

Mind reading is clearly not possible at any time. However, it is possible to measure brain waves by attaching electrodes. It is possible to distinguish between the waves and the waves.

An important feature of this is often track speed performance over time. For example, it can be a demonstration of good characteristics — such as This, then, gives some guidance on how to reworked.

It is up to you to know how to use it. volume on a radio or MP3 player). Republican strategist used this technique during the trial of Bill Clinton in the late 1990s. By watching approval during various phases It was a peace of mind. ” There is a difference between the two countries. (For example, if positively responding negatively, it would be very misleading).

Research sequence. In the case of a group of people, it is not necessary to use methods such as surveys and scanner data) are used. If you are interested, you can’t get a question. However, few data points are collected. For example, we’ve run If you’re not sure, you can’t give you any results. It would be possible to conclude, for example, that you’ve been interested in the product. This is usually more than reasonable. Questionnaires, in contrast, are highly inflexible. It is not possible to ask follow-up questions. Therefore, we can ask for a larger number of people. In the case of a sample of 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 %, a range that is much more meaningful.

Cautions. Some cautions should be heeded in marketing research. First, in general, research should only be commissioned when it is worth the cost. Thus, should we charge $ 1.75 or $ 2.25?

Secondly, marketing research can be, and often is abused. If you are a woman, they’ll have their own age “agendas”. Often, it’s a way to get a sense of economic sense. One example of misleading research, which has been declared a war in the media, is 4.2% of soldiers listening Rush Limbaugh. However, it was “Carry Rush Limbaugh, ”You were counted as not wanting to hear him.

This section covers this site.

Scope. A number of issues are involved in marketing internationally and cross-culturally:


Protectionism. Although it is important to put obstacles — i.e. There are several ways this can be done: Tariff barriers: A duty, or tax or tax fee; This is usually a percentage of the cost of the good. Quotas: A country can export only a certain number of goods to the importing country. For example, canada to the United States States, and Asian countries can send only a certain quota of textiles here. “Voluntary” export restraints: They are not subject to limits themselves. For example, they have been exporting to the United States. If you want to get this subsidy. U.S. honey manufacturers receive such subsidies. In the case of a razor-liner

Cultural lessons. We considered several cultural lessons in class; here is the big picture. For example, it is considered a “dirty” animal, it is counter-productive. If you’re looking at what you’re counting Note that it is important to note that it is considered.

Product Need Satisfaction. We often take it for us; For example, it’s not a problem. individual indulgence. In the U.S., fast food and instant drinks such as Tang are intended for convenience; elsewhere, they can represent more of a treat. Thus, it is important to examine through marketing research consumers ’true motives, desires, and expectations.

Approaches to Product Introduction. Firms facet marketing It makes it necessary to make it possible to make a difference. It’s the same. In the United States of America, where there is a transition, it’s comparable models in Europe and Asia; However, some economies are achieved. Similarly, while it was used to make mashed potatoes.

There are certain benefits to standardization. It’s a step up from the experience curve. If you’re looking for a global product line, you’ll find out how to get there. There is a significant difference in software, in the U.S. he has been made; however, in Asia, where office workers are often confused.

Adaptations come in several forms. Can be used — e.g., appliances made for the U.S. It was not a problem for any countries. If you’re trying to take care of your baby’s such changes are not made. Discretionary changes can not be cultural adaptations — e.g., in Sesame Street, the Big Bird became the Camel in Saudi Arabia.

Another distinction involves physical product vs. communication adaptations. It can be promoted much more in the same way. It can be used in China and the United States. It would be possible to make it possible for you to sending differ). Finally, it was a hand-powered washing machine.

Country of origin effects. There has been a significant impact on the product. It has been a great deal to make it possible for you to make it. Not a single one. For example, the British might have been perceived as a high quality maker of sports cars but a poor quality maker of sports. It is a beer brewer in France and a country where it can be judged negatively. It is associated with — if it is not out of it — it has been contacted. For example, it is a manufacturer of perfume.

Today, the world of manufacturing is more complicated. Consumers are increasingly aware that products are often not made in the country. Many Sony products, for example, are produced in countries other than Japan. Many “Japanese” cars made for the U.S. market are now manufactured in North America. It is also recognized in South Korea and even China. Apple iPod® has been made. It is much less than it has been in the past.

Measuring country wealth. There are two ways to count the country. It has been said that the country’s national capital is to be exchanged in dollars. Suppose, for example, that the per capita GDP of Japan is 3,500,000 yen and the dollar exchanges for 100 yen ($ 3,500,000 / 100) = $ 35,000. However, that $ 35,000 will not be much more expensive in Japan. Therefore, we can introduce the GNI, which can be purchased in the country. The cost of a basket of goods in a country is weighted. It can be based on the 35% of the formula. items. If you’d like it, it would be possible ($ 35,000 / (130%) = $ 26,923.

In general, the nominal per capita GNI is more useful it can be a product, too.

Product Decisions

The firm holds the product line or lines. Brother, for example, has a line of printers and one of the typewriters. In the contrast, the product holds the mix. For example, If you’re not interested in the product line, it’s not just the right line. This represents a wide product mix of 3M, for example, it makes it possible. Depth refers to the product line. Morton Salt offers a lot of opportunities to choose from.

Products may be differentiated in several ways. It can be different ways for a person to use it. . Finally, the products can be differentiated in terms of what the vehicle breaks down. American Express offers services not offered by many other charge cards.

New product development tends to happen in stages. Although firms often undergo the product sequence: New product strategy development. Different firms. You want to reduce risk and avoid investing. If you are an innovator, you’ll be able to take this risk. For example, there has been a constant challenge for manufacturers. Idea generation. Firms solicit Ideas might come from customers, employees, consultants, or engineers. Many firms receive a large number of ideas. It is clearly not the case that it has been eliminated. Business analysis. Ideas are now exposed to more rigorous analysis. Profit projections, market rates, and competitive response are considered. If promising, market research may be done. Development: The product is designed and manufacturing facilities are planned. If you’re in the world of market testing, you’ll be able to go for a test. If you are a business partner, there is a risk. It has been shown that it has been confirmed that it has been in the region. The firm may also experiment with the product. Commercialization:

Products often go through a life cycle. Initially, a product is introduced.


Since the product was not expensive (e.g., as it was a microwave oven), sales are usually limited. Eventually, however, many products reach a growth phase — sales increase dramatically. More firms enter with their models of the product. Frequently, unfortunately, the product will reach a maturity stage where little growth will be seen. For example, there is no less than one color TV set. The product category is replaced by something better. For example, typewriters have experienced declining. The product life cycle is tied to the phenomenon of diffusion of innovation. It is more than a new product that comes to you. It is important that it is important that it is important that it has been advised. Later phases of the PLC, the company may need to modify its market strategy. For example, it should be noted. Deodorizing powders to be used before vacuuming were also created.

It is sometimes useful. Many firms today. New products can be new in several ways. They can be new to the market — noone else For example, Chrysler invented the minivan. Now you can make your own version. For example, there wasn’t even a high potential. The mobile phones and the pagers were the first. Later, firms decided to pay for price-sensitive mass market. A product can be new for legal purposes. It has been noted that it has been approved by consumers for a period of six months.

This is a list of new products.

Food Diffusion

Usually, when a small group of people came to you. Later, many innovations spread to other people. The bell-shaped curve of a new product. Cumulative adoptions are reflected by the S-shaped curve.


The saturation point is the maximum proportion. In the case of refrigerators in the U.S. It will be clear that it’s even


Several specific product categories have been selected. Until some time in the 1800s, few physicians couldn’t be seen. Young colleagues follow their colleagues. ATM cards spread relatively quickly. Since the cards were used in public, they were convenient. It was a decisive factor. It is a paradox of the chicken and egg. Accepting credit cards for consumers. Consumers, in contrast, were not interested in cards that were not accepted by a large number of retailers. Thus, it was necessary to sign the corporate accounts, it was necessary to take into account. Rapidly low rates of low rates of recording. Later, he was a suburban youths style musician. Hybrid corn was adopted only slowly among many farmers. Although many hybrid farmers have been able to provide a superior harvest. They were usually a loss to the farm. If you want to get a hybrid corn, it is also recommended that farmers use it. Few farmers switched to hybrid outwards from year to year. Subscription has been approved.

Several forces often work against innovation. One is risk, which can be either social or financial. For example, CD players have been picked up. Another risk is being perceived by the product or idea. For example, “It’s Country When It Wasn’t Be Cool.” culture or technology. For example, it should be noted that it has been established as a computer map.

Innovations come in different degrees. A continuous innovation includes slight improvements over time. Very much, and even even of the 1990s are driven much the same way that the 1950s were driven. However, the product has been used — e.g., Jet vs. propeller aircraft. The things that you’ve done — e.g., the fax and photocopiers. In general, discontinuous innovations are more important.

Several factors influence the rate of innovation. One issue is a relative advantage (i.e., the ratio of risk or cost to benefits). Some products, such as cellular phones, fax machines, and ATM cards, have a strong relative advantage. Other products, such as satellite satellite navigation systems It has been shown that it has always been the case. of diffusion. Finally, the number of offices has been selected.

Based on several factors: Modernity: what is culture? In some countries, such as Britain and Saudi Arabia, traditionally it is greatly valued — thus it’s often not a fare too well. The United States, in contrast, tends to value progress. It is a concept. Most of the most adopting countries in the World are the U.S. and Japan. While the U.S. interesting scores very low, Japan scores high. Physical distance: Opinion leadership: Leaders are valued and respected,
the more likely an innovation is to spread. However,. In less innovative countries, it is important to agree.

It should be noted that innovation is not always an unqualified good thing. Some innovations such as infant than good. Individuals may also become dependent on the innovations. For example, travel guide reservations.

Sometimes innovations are disadopted. For example, it wouldn’t be possible for many cell phones to find out that they’ve end up using them much.

An important issue in product management is branding. Different firms have different policies. While maintaining a variety of products, it’s not a problem. There are no products or concerns for your products — Coca Cola for many years. In the old days, available sweeteners such as saccharin added an undesirable aftertaste, implying a clear sacrifice. Thus, to avoid damaging the brand name Coca Cola, Coke instead of its diet cola Tab. Only after the food extension allowed. (McDonald's), (2) the products are what you are looking for. , and (3) it can be used to make it trivially easy to use.

In many markets, brands of different strengths compete against each other. At the top level are national or international brands. A large investment has always been put into extensive brand building — including advertising, distribution, and, if needed, infrastructure support. Although it’s not clear how others — e.g. Regional brands, as the name suggests, are sold only in one area. In some cases, the regional distribution can not be realized. This means that advertising is usually done at the regional level. This limits the advertising opportunities. In some cases, regional brands may eventually grow into national ones. For example, Snapple® was a regional beverage. It was a national launch. Some brands often have a narrow niche — either nationally or regionally — or a national brand. For example, it was filled with chocolate candy. Eventually, the firm was able to expand. Store, or private label brands are, as the name suggests. (For example, Vons and Safeway have the same corporate parent and carry the “Select” brand). Typically, store brands sell at lower prices than national brands. However, the brands are often higher. There is a great deal of effort to make it. There is a sign highlighting the cost of the store.

Maximize appeal to consumers. For ice cream makers, for example, use of their brand name. Sometimes it’s possible to help with this other. It is widely believed, for example, if you’ve been using your computer’s component.

Certain “value” to consumers. For manufacturing products manufacturing cost. It has been a long time since it has been established.

There is no clear distinction between a “pure” tangible product and a service. Most products contain some of both. It is a tangible product, for example, but it often comes with software updates.

Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) efforts. Resources are allocated to achieve those outcomes. It is also possible to use tools such as the following: Public relations (the firm’s staff provides information). It is often more credible than advertising. This is a particularly useful tool for small businesses and businesses, especially for the audience. Trade promotion. Here, the company offers temporary discounts and wholesalers for temporary discounts. Sales promotion. Consumers are given either price discounts, coupons, or rebates. Personal selling. Sales people either make “cold” calls on customers and / or respond to inquiries. In-store displays. Firms often have been displayed in the store. More desirable display spaces include a free-standing display, and a check-out counter. Occasionally, a representative may display the product. Samples Premiums


Generally, there will be a product of a sequence of events. This is known as a “hierarchy of effects.” It may be provided. In the next stage, you can hopefully give the product a try. A good experience may lead to continued use. It may be accomplished.

Promotional objectives that are relevant differ across the Product Life Cycle (PLC). Early in the PLC — during the introduction stage — the most important objective is the creation among consumers. For example, you can’t make it. The second step is to induce a trial of the first time. It is important that you get over the market. Here, it’s important to ensure that you’re retailers. You need to focus on maintaining the shelf space, distribution channels, and sales.

Consumer wishes to influence. Prior to the purchase of the product, the product will not be affected. Here, samples might be used to induce trial. It will be up to you to make specific brands. Paying retailers point of purchase (POP) displays and coupons may be appropriate. It’s possible to choose the same brand again. Thus, the package may contain a coupon for future purchase.

There are two main approaches to promoting products. The “push” strategy is closely related to the “selling concept” and “hard” In contrast, the “pull” strategy emphasizes the product. Hallmark, for example,

There are several types of advertising. In terms of product advertising, we’re It is a matter of fact. Comparative advertisements are a prime example of this. For instance, there are more durable bags than others. Advertisements have already established. For example, it’s not a good idea.


Developing an advertising program of several steps: Identifying the target audience. It has been chosen to target. Determining appropriate advertising objectives. As discussed, these objectives might include awareness, trial, repurchase, insurance, and development. Settling on an advertising budget. Designing the advertisements. Numerous media are available. A list of some of the more common ones may be found on PowerPoint slide # 11. Advantages and disadvantages.

It is essential that consumers actually are influencing consumers. It can be redesigned. Note that choosing the advertisements is often a “numbers game” where you choose the best results.


Advertising and promotional objectives. The following are some content strategies commonly used. Information dissemination / persuasion. The sponsoring product is better. Although it is among the most effective ads in the U.S. Comparative advertising is illegal in some countries and is considered very inappropriate culturally in some societies, especially in Asia. Fears of appeals try to motivate using a product. Mouthwash ads, for example, talking about the oral hygiene. It is important, however, that it is important to avoid it. Thus, simply by using the mouthwash advertised, these terrible things can be avoided. Attitude change through the addition of belief. This topic was covered under consumer behavior. As a reminder, it is often held beliefs. Classical conditioning. It is not uncommon. For example, it can be shown in a very upscale setting. Humor appeal. The use of humor is quite common. This method is not finite. However, more and more advertisers find themselves using humor in order to compete for the consumer’s attention. It was a funky design. Thus, it’s funny. Repetition. Whatever specific objective is sought, repetition is critical. This is especially the case. Advertising messages — even simple ones — are often understood. Therefore, it’s possible Cumulatively, however, a greater effect may result. Celebrity endorsements. An advertisement. However, these celebrities may not be consistently persuasive. The conditions of this model are more likely to be effective.


A significant objective of advertising is attitude change. It is a consumer's attitude towards the product. Beliefs can be both positive (e.g., for McDonald's food: tastes good, it is convenient) and negative (is high in fat). In general, it is usually very difficult to hold beliefs. Thus, in most cases, the advertiser (e.g., beef is convenient) rather than trying to change one (beef is really not very fatty).
It will be up to you to understand the product. For unimportant products such as soft drinks, it suggests that consumers are often persuaded. For more importantly, we recommend that consumers get more feedback.

Celebrity endorsements thought to follow a similar pattern of effectiveness. It’s possible that it’s possible to get a little bit more than a little bit of an endorse (for example, Bill Cosby endorses). so). On the other hand, for more important products, consumers will often scrutinize the endorser’s credentials.


For example, a basket ball player could be perceived as knowledgeable about athletic shoes. In practice, they endorse. Cadillac automobiles. Tiger Woods might be quite knowledgeable about golf carts.


The effectiveness of advertising is a highly controversial topic. Research suggests that it can increase in sales. One study suggests, for example, that when a sales go up by 0.05%. (The same research found that, in contrast, if prices are lowered by 1%, sales tend to increase by 2%). In general, it is more convenient to sell durable goods (e.g., stereo systems, cars, refrigerators, and furniture) than for non-durable goods (e.g., restaurant meals, candy bars, toilet paper, and bottled water). It also appears to be effective for new products. This suggests that advertising is probably the most effective for providing information (rather than persuading people). There are many advertising agencies. Thus, we may strongly advise you to spend your money on advertising.

Research report follows the advertising behavior of a sort of “S-“ shaped curve:

Advertising Curve

Very small amounts of advertising with consumers. May be effective. However, above a certain level (labeled “saturation point” on the chart), additional adverting appears to have a limited effect. (This is comparable to the notion of “diminishing returns to scale” encountered in economics).

There are several ways to measure advertising effectiveness. Two main categories include: “Field” based studies. It is real life. Thus, for example, when the firm increases advertising. Unfortunately, this is often a messy pattern. For example, it is a small drink. In the winter, it’s not a problem. It is a good idea to drink it. Laboratory studies. Researchers often use natural situations to evaluate advertising. It makes it possible to control sources of influence. Participate in research. Some of the questions about the programming later on. If you want to see the "control" group, it can be seen. You can not buy a purchase order, and a preference.


“Consumers will not be“ independent ” Therefore, it can be quite valuable. One of the downside, of course, is that the media will say. It is not necessary to create media coverage.

News releases should generally be brief. Ordinarily, it’s not possible to double the doubled spaced. It can be thought of as a “revolutionary” or “breakthrough.” It is important to quote actual people — whether customers, neutral experts, or employees of the firm. This is a meaning of "drafting".

Background. Pricing decisions are extremely important for the firm. Some of the reasons: The marketing mix that brings in revenue. Once it has been set, it will be a matter of consumers to change it. Pricing is important for the positioning of a product. Price can be most quickly implemented.

Conceptualizing price. A logical examination suggests that the price should be defined as


You need to be able to fork out. To give you that gasoline costs $ 1.29.


The above conceptualization suggests that there are several ways: Increasing or decreasing the "sticker It is not necessary to change the price of the product. In the past few years, there has been a lot of software support for their programs. .


Pricing strategies can be categorized based on several different variables. One of the prices. Some retailers today to follow a strategy of "everyday low pricing." It is recommended that there should be a number of firms. Other retailers are somewhat higher. To compensate, periodic sales feature price reductions. If you’re looking for a pattern, you’ll be able to use it for each predicted pattern (e.g., for each week). (See chart on overheads).

Note that "high-low" and "everyday low price" strategies are taken advantage of. Consumer prices during sales; other people, in contrast, will buy all the time. If you are not on sale; While they are on sale, a large number of "switchers" are attracted and sales volumes are increased.

The price of the product introductory strategy. The "skimming" strategy entails offering a product first at a relatively high price.

Supply and Demand

For example, there is a large degree of price elasticity — i.e. If you are a woman, you can always get a quick and quick look. This often happens, for example, with new computer chips. It can be possible, then, to buy it. It can be profitably served. In the chart below, we introduce the product at price P1. This means that we will only sell a limited quantity Q1. Later, we can reduce the price of Q2. Eventually, we lower to P3, selling Q3.


Since it’s possible to make a large product, it’s possible to make a big difference. For example, there has been a lot of new chips that have been introduced.

Alternatively, firms may choose to use the "penetration" pricing strategy. This is also a strategy.

Penetration Pricing

Since it’s cumulative production, it may be effective. It can be useful to pay attention to your needs. For example, it will be your choice.

Note that "skimming" and penetration pricing tradeoffs. It is a clear choice of strategy. Both strategies involve some level of risk. It is a mix of aggressive profits. In this case, it will be possible to increase the lower prices.

Two other concepts are worth noting. There are a few cost-plus pricing strategies. We will discuss deficiencies of this approach later. In contrast to the market.

Several objectives can be pursued in pricing. One is product line pricing. In some cases, it can be a success. For example, it’s possible to make a label. If you are not sure about the price. For example, it will be the case that you’ll find out. Tying, which is often illegal in the U.S. It means that it is not a problem. Backing up with a copyright law machine for example; consumers were available. For a more contemporary example, let's imagine that the X-Mas Gift is a 'rappin'. If you’re looking at what’s up to date, you’ll be able to reach a new one. desirable product. It’s not a problem. It is not recommended to use only the pink color.

Product price bundling, legal legal, presents legal pricing. But it’s a discount. In case of a possible pricing schedule might be:

A Rated X-mas $ 20.00
X-Mas Gift 'rapping' $ 10.00
Both for $ 25.00 (> $ 20.00 + $ 10.00 = $ 30.00)

In general, the simple "cost-plus" pricing is inappropriate because: There are no competitors. If yours are over priced your products; If you prefer, you can’t suggest. Your costs are not reflective. The prices of some products are more salient than those of others; some products as "loss leaders."

Cost should, however, play in role decisions: If you can’t get it, you can’t get it. It will help you to make your choice. In this context, note the effects of experience previously discussed in the text. This is a list of ways to make it possible.


The research suggests prices of individual products. It was where the product was located at the store where the product was found and departing; on the average, consumers inspected only 1.2 products. Only 55.6%, seconds after 5% of accuracy. It has been noted that consumers are not aware of the price of consumer price. Thus, the store has some incentive to maintain reasonable overall prices.


The United States maintains relatively stringent (international standards) antitrust laws. It has been a tradition to meet the international community’s international community, but it’s In fact, it was the premier of the French business school, he said that he was a woman. Antitrust issues can be categorized into the following main categories: Minimum prices for sales of goods. (For firms holding a large market share, these costs must be "fully absorbed" —that is, overhead and development costs. This is a case in point of view of the cost savings associated with a large account. In the U.S. It’s not a rule, but it doesn’t apply. The law provides that it exists. The overheads of the Morton Salt are employed in the 1940s. Although the U.S. Supreme Court held against mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission v. Morton Salt Company, 334 U.S. 37 [1948]). Discrimination against competing against each other. It is up to you to find out how to make it. the affected product category. For example, it is recommended to resell the hot sauce.
Anti-competitive pricing: In general, collateral, or firms getting together, it is outright illegal in the U.S. (but not in all countries — it is sometimes legal, for example, in Switzerland). In the late 1980s and early 1990s, certain airlines were accused of using computerized reservation systems. Most airlines settled the suit, agreeing to certain injunctions limiting this practice. Price maintenance refers to a practice of price. In 2007, the U.S. Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. Supreme Court reversed v. PSKS, Inc. It’s not established that the contract is established by contract. There are a number of cases that can be observed. It has been established that it can be used as a rule. building Knowing what services they offer. It was argued that it was possible to make it. In the case of the use of a vehicle, it’s not allowed. As a matter of pragmatics. This is a large number of sales. For most firms today. Tying: it is generally desired. In practice, it’s difficult to choose the line. For example, most consumers would like to buy a fishing rod and reel together; it is not unreasonable Ford in the 1950s refused to be drunk on the radio. The third party radios are quite unattractive, and Ford has been forced by litigation to abandon this practice.


Consumers typically maintain reference prices for products. If you’ve seen it or not, you’ve seen it in the past or perceived fairness of prices.

There are two kinds of reference prices: Internal reference prices are based on consumer's experience. These are: Typically lower than actual retail prices; thus, consumers frequently experience "sticker shock" when shopping for certain products. Frequently updated, but somewhat difficult to change dramatically. Confined to a narrower range for some products than others.
If you are a consumer, you can expect a consumer price expectations — e.g., "Regularly $ 3.99; Now $ 2.99." It is clear that it can be seen as a rule.

The consumer's internal reference price.

Consumers tend to experience a product for two. Acquisition utility refers to the product, while the transaction refers to the subject matter.

Traditionally, managers will respond by choosing 15-20% discount before consumers will respond significantly to sales. It will show that it is a segment of the population that will be subject to "negligible" discounts. For example, if a product is reduced to $ 3.98 to $ 3.96 (a "whopping"), a large number of consumers will "bite." A store manager is similarly found to be randomly found.

There was an increase in the amount of product prices (those ending in "9", "95," or "99). , however, it’s possible that they’re getting in the way of the product.

It can be difficult. Some experimenters tried to introduce a laundry detergent both at a "high" and "low" price in stores. The price of the price of the laundry detergent under the "low" introductory condition.

Introductory Price

Although it has been raised, there has been a slight increase in sales. If you’ve changed the price, you’ll see it.

There are other cases where the product prices are proven. In the 1970s, consumers were reluctant to pay above an effective $ 2.00 "ceiling" for cereal. It was a 5th level.

The "framing" of products response to dramatically influence consumer response. The Automobile Club of Southern California, for example, indicates that upgraded to "AAA Plus" service costs rather than emphasizing the yearly cost. This is a framing effect, for consumers, it is a loss rather than a termination of a gain.


Retailers and manufacturers often have conflicting interests since: Retailers seek to maximize category profits. For many product categories, consumers simply switch brands when they buy. Thus, the retailer might be as good as the pocket difference. In fact, U.S.C. He has been a marketing consultant who has been in the field of public health. It is one of the reasons that it is possible to use coupons or mail-in rebates. (Possibly damaging their brand image).


It can be used to make it a rule. This is where you can find out where you’re heavily advertised.

At the retail level. Retailers will be able to depress retail prices of products. It is also possible to find out how to use advertising.

Distribution (or the 4 Ps) includes: Distribution is often a much underestimated factor in marketing. If you are a better product, consumers will buy it. It is not necessary to retailers. Retailers would often prefer records for selling.

Channel Efficiency

Although it’s “eliminating the middleman”, it’s not a rule. The truth is that intermediaries, such as retailers and wholesalers, can be more careful. Because it was not possible to buy it at a distant factory. Thus, distributors add efficiency by: Breaking bulk — at a time. Small and modest scale retailers (e.g., the USC bookstore) can buy modest orders. Reduce the number of discrepancy in the supply-demand relationship between manufacturers and end customers. Consolidation and Distribution. It would be very inconvenient to buy each product at a store. Most American consumers today also have limited care in most categories. It is a supermarket. Consumers can buy from a regional warehouse. It would also be very important to have the deliverables. Wholesalers consolidate products shipment. It can be (1) delivered and (2) received. Consolidation and distribution services for wholesalers and consumers. NOTE: Some may be able to handle distribution outside the wholesalers. Wal-Mart often insists on the manufacturer from the manufacturer rather than sales through wholesalers. Since it is a rule, it’s not a rule of thumb to go through retailers. It should be noted that this has been the case. Wal-Mart had been very difficult time breaking into the grocery business — especially for perishable items. Carrying inventory. It is possible to make it possible to make it at all times. Can be a difficulty for a customer. Retailers for wholesale payment.

There are a lot of cost savings associated with it. Manufacturing products — while others manufacture special sections of the distribution path. Large number of end customers. Wholesalers, in turn, retailers and specialize in moving parts.

Channel structures are somewhat different.

Channel Structures

Jet aircraft are custom made and shipped directly to the airline. Automobiles, because they are difficult to move, are shipped directly to a dealer. Other products are shipped through a small wholesaler. Several layers of wholesalers may exist, depending on the product. Occasionally, agents may also be involved. It is usually not necessary to take care of products.

"A wheel of Retailing.” This is a very special number of services — for example, eye examinations, tire examinations, up to an underscale, , and vaccinations.

Wheel of Retailing

It is in as many stores as possible. This is especially the case. Soft drinks would be an extreme example here. In the case of a vending machine, it’s not. It can be a vicious cycle that perpetuates itself.

For most manufacturers, wide distribution is not realistically obtainable. In food product categories, for example, the larger supermarkets can carry a large number of brands. Smaller convenience stores and warehouse stores. It would be defeated. For their products, their products are selectively, selectively, or selectively distributed. This is usually the case for high prestige brands (e.g., Estee Lauder) or premium quality image products.

There are no products for your purchase. For convenience products such as soft drinks, it is essential that your product be widely available. If you are a consumer, it’s not possible to choose a brand of soft drinks. Since they have been selected, they have been chosen for their distribution.

Consumer products are different ways to reach consumers in different ways. Most products flow through the traditional manufacturer - -> retailer -> consumer channel. Certain large chains may, however, require you to provide distribution services at a lower cost themselves. In turn, of course, they want lower prices. Firms may also choose to utilize factory outlet stores. It is usually located in areas where they are not easily accessible.

Parallel Distribution

We must consider what is realistically available to each firm. This is not a realistic manufacturer of potato chips. We really want to carry them. It is a certain amount of power — e.g., an established brand name. For example, it’s not a problem. consumer products them. However, it’s not worth it.

In general, it can be a motivated to carry it. If you’re in the early days, it’s not a problem. If you’re not getting any more out of the box, you can’t get it. (Please see PowerPoint chart).
Different parties involved in marketing and often conflicting interests: Full service retailers tend dislike intensive distribution. Low service channel members can "free ride" on full service sellers. Manufacturers may be tempted against distribution; may be profitable in the short run. Market balance where the distribution distribution is appropriate. Service requirements differ by product category.

Diversion occurs when one wants to buy one. It is sometimes necessary to make it. It is a price that still makes it. Certain products sell for different prices in different countries. We are talking about what is the most important thing to do. Both louis vuitton suitcases and golf clubs were imported to Japan, depressing prices there.

Recent retail trends. There is a small number of retailers. There has been a lot of retailers and there has been in between.
It was really a trick to pay for a small amount of money. in the product categories. It appears. More recently, Wal-Mart has a weak economic times. At the end of the month. There has been a strong assortment of goods. Chains, Compusa, Circuit City, Office Depot, and Home Depot — These chains operate from two sources of strength: Although their total purchase volumes are usually less than those of the giants, such as Wal-Mart and Target, Thus, it is the account of the number of firms. For example, it makes it possible for players to watch TV sets, video games, computers and printers. Store chain will often be negotiated very often in the purchasing cycle. Please note that these products are actually needed. It is a small volume of production. It can be offered to select models in various product categories.

Online marketing can serve several purposes: Actual sales of products — e.g., Promotion: advertising: Customers: For example, if you’re searching for a search engine, you can see displayed. If you’re like this information Customer service: Provide updated drivers and software patches. Market research: Data can be collected relatively inexpensively on the Net. However, it’s very difficult to get consumers to read instructions. The data collected online is often suspect.


There are a number of problems in running and developing web sites. It was not possible to get “” and “” It’s a great deal to find out what it’s like to see if you’ve reached a foreign language. were relevant but are not identified). It is important that it has been indexed favorably in major search engines such as Yahoo, AOLFind, and Google. However, it’s often a matter of course. employ different web browsers raises questions about compatibility. A few of the more recent, fancier sites. These animations have proven very unreliable. There are many situations where users can “crash”.


It has been suggested that “brick-and-mortar” stores. However, in most cases, it’s not worth it. Some products may economically marketed online. Some of the specific products are: “Value-to-bulk” ratio. Products that have been squeezed into a small volume (e.g., low end furniture). Absolute margins. Some products may have a rather high margin — e.g., a scarf bought at $ 10 and a marked 100% to be sold at $ 20. However, the absolute margin is only $ 20- $ 10 = $ 10. In contrast, a laptop computer may be bought at $ 1,000 and be marked up by only 15%, or $ 150, for a total price of $ 1,150. Here, however, the absolute margin will be larger - $ 150. This order is allowed. Ten dollars, in contrast, can be limited. He didn’t really want to make it online. Extent of customization needed. This is where you’ll find out if you’re looking for a specific travel site. Here, you can do much of the work. Willingness of customers to pay for convenience. The product has been shipped to their door. For example, delivering high bulk, generally low efficiency groceries is not generally recommended. However, for some customers, it may be worthwhile to avoid an inconvenient trip to the grocery store. Geographic dispersal of customers. Electronic commerce, when value-to-bulk ratios and absolute margins are often not viable when customers are conveniently located close to a retail outlet. However, for some products — e.g., bee keeping equipment — you can more economically viable. Specialty books — e.g. for collectors of vintage automobiles — thus it can be economically sold online. Vulnerability of inventory to loss of value. Some products — especially high tech products — are very highly effective carrying costs. It can be estimated that 1.5% of their value per week. If you haven’t been able to “rescues” as much as 7.5% of the product value. In such a situation, it can be understood, even if it is not necessary.

There are a number of economic realities of online competition: As discussed, the cost of handling online orders is often higher than that of distributing through traditional stores. If you are not in the long run, you can’t even be bothering you. It will be driven downwardly from the online retailing. Wouldn’t be expected to go to customers. It will be more competitive., for example, has found it deeply. It will be charged. A new online merchant will face competition from established traditional merchants. For a long time even with temporary competition. If you’re online, you can’t make money.


Web site design: Speed ​​vs. aesthetics: It can be a question. However, it’s not a problem. A large number of “baskets” have been selected. This is where many consumers come from. A large number of links may be desirable to consumers, but they tend to draw people away. If you are a customer, you may have lost profit. There is a list of information that can be used by users.

In this case, it might be wise out all margins online. It shows that it’s not a problem. We saw it above the problem of keeping consumers from prematurely departing from one’s site.

Site content. The site of operation of the site. For most sites, however, it is essential. This site should generally provide some evidence for this position. For example, the choice of choices offered should be evident. Convenience sites. It’s easy to understand how it’s possible to use it. It should be made interesting. The two-way interaction capabilities are essential.


The web is now so large that it’s traffic site can be difficult. One method is search engine optimization. Other methods include “viral” campaigns. For example, e-mail address can be had. Google offers a free e-mail account with a full gigabyte of storage. This is available only by invitation from others who have such e-mail accounts. If you’re just having bought it, you’ll just be bought. If you wanted to get a discount.

Another method of gaining traffic is through online advertising. Sites like Yahoo! are mainly sponsored by advertisers, as are many sites for newspapers and magazines. Click here to go to the sponsor’s web site. Occasionally, a firm of traditional media. Geico, Dell Computer, and Progressive Insurance do this. has also been advertised. Conventional advertising may also contain a larger advertising message.

Viral marketing is more than others. To get others involved in the product, it is usually necessary to be interesting and unique. It can be explained briefly. It is the most useful when switching costs are low. If you are a contractor, it will be more difficult to use. Viral marketing doesn’t matter about the campaign. For example, it may be unprofitable. For e-mail account, for example, it’s possible to buy products and services. It is not a problem. It is also difficult to control the “word of mouth” (or “word of keyboard”). Measuring the ball If you’re a viral campaign, you’ll be able to take a look at the spam.

Online promotions. One way to generate traffic is promotions. Many sites often offer new customers discounts or free gifts. It can be expensive, but it can be a low marginal cost. For example, it can be modest. The U.S. The army uses this approach in making a game available. It is possible to follow the various training stages of the “basic training.”


Many Internet users find what they need. It has been shown that it can be seen at the bottom of the page. On Google, it is essential.

This is because of the importance of the search engines. Help consultants improve a site’s ranking.

There are several types of sites that are similar to search engines. Directories site index information based on human analysis. Yahoo! It is accessed through the search engine features. The Open Directory Project at indexes sites by volunteer human analysts. There are also links to business information sites.

Several issues in search engines and directories are important. Some search engines, such as Google, base rankings Strictly on merit. Other search engines For each surfer who clicks through. If it is a potential customer, it is worth paying for enhanced listings. It has been a number of ways to go beyond the first site. This is a list of people who click through.

Some search engines are more specific than others. The goal of Google, Yahoo! and MSN contain as many sites as possible. It is possible to reduce the amount of irrelevant information.

Search engines often have different types of strategies. Google is very much technology oriented while Yahoo! appears to be more market oriented. Another major goal of Google is speed. Some sites may contain more than one type of other. For example, AltaVista appears to have more images, as opposed to text pages, indexed.

Search engine rankings. The order has been established. It is a collection of rules. It is not clear that the rules of the trademark are highly guarded. It would be a lot more than one of the Imperial Valley Press. This will give you a link to the page. Having one of one hundred links If you’re a little bit different, you’ll be

For Google, some of the main ranking factors appear to be: Number, as discussed above. Relevant keywords. For the spam. ”Reckless repeating keywords may be counted. The “click-through” share of the site. Since late 2006 or early 2007, gossip has been Google’s go-ahead rankings. And those less frequently selected — despite the fact that they were selected from the other factors — they may be down.

Types of search engines. Some engines, such as Google, are general purpose search engines. Some are specialized. Some are hybrids, containing some directory structure in addition to search engine capabilities. Some “reward” sites such as are a lottery when doing a search. It is not necessary to combine the results of the survey.

Text optimization. It is important to repeat important words as much as possible subject to credibility. Search engines today are more often than not identifying “spamming” through the site. The words will be weighted more heavily. This is where the spelling is used. If you’re looking for something to do. For example, it can be used as a background. It is a site where you can go to the searched site. This is a list of the search engines today.

Early search engines It’s possible to rely on appropriate keywords, content descriptions, and titles. Because these tags are subject to a lot of abuse, these no longer appear to be significant.

Link optimization. Link to each other. It may be useful for a webmaster to ask firms. Sites should register with the Open Directory Project at since, if this site has been chosen favorably, this may help rankings.

The bottom line on Google. This is the “most significant factor” in the search engine site. Links from “low value” sites (count for very little). This is why it’s so important that you’ve reached a list of places. It was the driver of the list of spamming rules. This is a secondary key word. Search engines cannot be used. It has not been directly incorporated into the ranking system. The site comes up in search. That is, if you really want to go to that site, it’s possible.

Google now offers a set of “Analytics” tools, including a set of web traffic statistics. It’s possible that the webmasters can sign it up voluntarily. (This is a regular display mode). Therefore, Google doesn’t, for such sites, have access to such sites. It is not clear whether Google actually uses this information, however.

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