The man's face gradually


Having studied in detail the structure of a person, we can now carefully look at the details. And we will start with the face. A person's face is the first thing that we pay attention to in any situation, and this also applies to art in a certain way: the observer will first of all consider the face with your characteristic features. Transferring a face to paper, especially drawing live expressive expressions, is undoubtedly worth the effort.

In this lesson we will get acquainted with the main components of face painting - proportions, features and perspective, and in the following lessons we will take a closer look at various facial expressions. 1. Face proportions

Full face:

In this position, the skull will be a flat circle, to which are added the outline of the jaw, which generally forms the shape of the egg, pointed at the bottom. Two perpendicular in the center of the line divide the "egg" into four parts. To distribute facial features:

- Mark the middle of the left and right halves of the horizontal line. In these points will be the eyes.

- Divide the vertical bottom line into five equal parts. The tip of the nose will be at the second point from the center. The lip fold will be at the third point from the center, one current lower from the tip of the nose.

- Divide the upper half of the head into four equal parts: the hairline (if the person has no bald patches) will be located between the second and third points from the center. The ear will be located between the upper eyelid and the tip of the nose (if the face is on the same level). When a person looks up or down, the position of the ears changes.

face-front

It is useful to know that the width of the face is the width of five eyes or slightly less. The distance between the eyes is equal to the width of one eye. It is uncharacteristic for people to have wide-set or too close-up eyes, but this is always noticeable (wide-set eyes give an innocent childish expression to a person, and narrow-set eyes for some reason arouse suspicion in us). The distance between the lower lip and chin is also equal to the width of one eye.

Another measure of the measure is the length of the index finger over the thumb. In the diagram below, all lengths are marked according to this criterion: ear height, distance between hair growth and eyebrow level, distance from eyebrows to nose, distance from nose to chin, distance between pupils.

measurements

Profile:

From the side, the shape of the head also resembles an egg, but pointed to the side. The central lines now divide the head into the front (face) and back (skull) parts.

From the side of the skull:

- The ear is located right behind the center line. In size and location, it is also located between the upper eyelid and the tip of the nose.
- The depth of the skull varies between two dotted lines (as shown in Step 4).

From the face:

- Facial features are located in the same way as in full face.

- The deepening of the nose bridge either coincides with the central line, or is located slightly higher.

- The most prominent point will be the eyebrow level (1 point from the center).

face-profile 2. Facial features

Eyes and Eyebrows

The eye is built from two simple arcs, shaped like almonds. There are no strict rules, as the shape of the eyes can be completely different, but there are general recommendations:

- The outer corner of the eye is higher than the inner corner, and not vice versa.

- If you compare the eye with the almond, the rounded part of the pupil will be from the inner corner, decreases towards the outer corner.

eye

Eye Details

- The iris is partially hidden behind the upper eyelid. It crosses the lower eyelid only if the person is looking down or squinting (the lower eyelid rises).

- Eyelashes bend outward, and they are shorter on the lower eyelid (in fact, it is not necessary to draw them every time).

- If you want to depict the oval of the tear channel in the inner corner of the eye, as well as show the thickness of the lower eyelid, it completely depends on your preferences; excess parts do not always look appropriate. Adding such details are proportional to the complexity of drawing.

- The same can be applied to drawing the crease of the eyelid - it adds expressiveness and makes the look less disturbed. I think it is better not to add a crease if you are performing a stylized drawing or your drawing is too small.

The eye in profile resembles the shape of an arrowhead (the sides can be concave and convex), with a small designation of the upper eyelid and, optionally, the lower. In life, we do not see the iris in profile, but we see the white of the eye. When I was working on a lesson, many said that “it looks weird,” so the iris must still be marked.

As for the eyebrows, the easiest way to draw them after the eyes is to repeat the bend of the upper eyelid. Most of the length of the eyebrow looks inward, and its tip is always slightly shorter.

In profile, the shape of the eyebrow changes - it becomes like a comma. This “comma” continues the level of the eyelashes (where they are bent). Sometimes the eyebrow seems to be one with the eyelashes, so you too can draw one curve for the top of the eye and the border of the eyebrow.

Nose

The nose is usually wedge-shaped - it is easier to visualize and give three-dimensionality before complementing with details.

The septum and lateral sides of the nose are flat, which will be noticeable in the finished drawing, but already at the sketch stage it is necessary to designate them in order to subsequently distribute the parts correctly. In our wedge, the lower flat part is a truncated triangle connecting the wings and the tip of the nose. The wings bend towards the septum, forming nostrils - note that, when viewed from below, the lines forming the sides of the septum are in the foreground, parallel to the face. The septum protrudes lower than the wings (when viewed directly), which means that when viewed from the ¾ perspective, the distant nostril will not be visible accordingly.

nose

The most difficult point when drawing the nose may be deciding which parts of the nose it is better not to portray for a natural looking result. You do not always have to completely draw the wings of the nose (where they connect with the face), and in most cases the picture looks better if you just draw the lower part of the nose. The same applies to the four lines of the septum of the nose, in the place where they connect to the face - in most cases it will be better if you draw only the lower part of the nose (wings, nostrils, septum) - you can alternately close the lines with your finger to make sure . If the head is turned to ¾, it becomes necessary to draw the lines of the nose. You will need to observe a lot, by trial and error to recognize the unique features of the nose. This feature has cartoonists - you need to carefully consider the outlines of the noses, to understand why they are depicted in this way. We will return to this issue again in the following lessons.

nose-details

Lips

Mouth and lip tips:

- First you need to draw a labial fold, as this is the most linear and dark of the three almost parallel lines that form the mouth. In fact, this is not a solid line - it consists of several implicit curves. In the figure below you can see hyperbolic examples of the movement of the mouth line - note that they follow the line of the upper lip. This line can be “softened” in several ways: the depression above the lip may already be (for distinguishing the corners) or so wide that it becomes imperceptible. Maybe the other way around - the lower lip is so full that it creates a feeling of pouting lips. If you find it difficult to stick with symmetry at this stage, try starting from the center and draw one line on each side.

- The upper corners of the lips are more noticeable, but you can soften them by depicting two wide curves, or soften them so much that they will no longer be visible.

- The lower lip certainly resembles a regular curve, but it can be almost flat or rather rounded. My advice is to mark the lower lip at least with the usual dash below the lower border.

- The upper lip is almost always already lower, and it is less protruding. If its contour is circled, it should be more pronounced, since the lower lip stands out for its shadow (it should not exceed the size of the lip).

- In profile, the lips resemble an arrowhead in shape, and the protrusion of the upper lip becomes obvious. The shape of the lips is also different - the top is flat and is located diagonally, and the bottom is more rounded.

- The lip fold in a profile deviates downwards, since crossing of lips. Even if the person smiles, the line descends below and rises again in the area of ​​the corners. Never raise the level of a line when drawing in a profile.

lips

Ears

The main part of the ear (if it is drawn correctly) has the shape of the letter C on the outside and the shape of an inverted letter U on the inside (border of the upper cartilage of the ear). Often, draw a smaller U over the ear lobe (you can put a finger on your ear), which moves on to the smaller letter C. Details of the ear are depicted around the ear hole itself (but not always), and their shapes can be completely different in different people. The picture can be stylized - for example, in the figure below, the ear in its general form resembles the extended “@” symbols.

ears

When the face is turned in full face, the ears are depicted in profile, respectively:

- The earlobe, previously indicated in the shape of an inverted U, is now seen separately - the same thing when you watch the plate from the side and then see its bottom, as if it were closer to you.

- The shape of the ear hole resembles a drop and stands out against the general background of the ear.

- The thickness of the ear from this angle depends on the proximity to the head, this is another individual factor. However, the ear always protrudes ahead - it happened in the course of evolution.

When viewed from the back, the ear appears to be separate from the body, mostly a lobe connected to the head with the help of a canal. Do not downplay the size of the canal - its function is to keep your ears protruding. In this perspective, the channel is weightier than the earlobe. 3. Perspectives

Since the head is based on a circle where facial features are marked with contours, changing the angle of the head is easier than it seems at first glance. Nevertheless, it is even more important to observe the position of the heads of people from different angles in life, in order to remember all the projections and depressions superimposed on each other in unexpected ways. The nose, of course, considerably recedes from the head (eyebrows, cheekbones, center of the lips and chin also protrude); at the same time, the orbits and sides of the mouth form some cavities on our “circle”.

When you and I painted the face in full face and in profile, we simplified the task to a two-dimensional image, where all the lines were flat. For all other angles, we will need to rebuild our thinking into a three-dimensional world and realize that the shape of the egg is actually an egg, and the lines we used earlier to position facial features intersect this egg like the equator and meridians on the globe: at the smallest changing the position of the head, we will see that they are rounded. The location of the facial features is just drawing intersecting lines at a certain angle - now there are three. We can again divide the head into upper and lower parts, “cutting” our “egg”, but now we need to keep in mind: the components closest to us look thicker. The same applies to drawing a face in a raised or lowered state.

Man looking down

- All features are bent upward, and ears “rise”.

- Since the nose protrudes forward, its tip goes down to the original mark, so it seems that it is now closer to the lips, and if the person lowers his head even lower, then the part will partially close the lips. From this perspective, you do not need to draw additional details of the nose - it will be enough nose and wings.

- Eyebrow arches are fairly flat, but can be curved again if you tilt your head too much.

- The upper eyelid of the eye becomes more expressive, and just enough to slightly change the position of the head, so that they completely hide the orbits of the eyes.

- The upper lip is almost invisible, and the lower one increases.

- Note: if you keep the initial bend of the main curve of the mouth line, it may seem like a person is smiling; therefore, for the natural transmission of the expression, it is necessary to change the degree of curvature of the curve.

plongee

Man looks up

- All lines facial features tend down; ears also move down.

- The upper lip is visible in full (which does not happen in full face). Now lips seem pouting.

- Eyebrows bend more strongly, and the lower eyelid rises, because of what eyes seem narrowed.

- The lower part of the nose is now fully visible, both nostrils are clearly displayed.

contre-plongee

Man turns When we see a person almost completely turned away, eyebrows and cheekbones remain from visible features. The line of the neck is superimposed on the line of the chin and is located next to the ear. When a person turns, we also see eyelashes. Also when turning, we can see part of the eyebrow line and the protrusion of the lower eyelid; the tip of the nose also appears right from the cheek. When a person turns almost in profile, eyeballs and lips appear (although the crease between the lips is small), and the neckline merges with the chin line. We still see part of the cheek covering the wing of the nose.

side-foreshortening time to practice

Use the quick sketching method, putting on facial expressions that you notice around you in a coffee shop or on the street.

Do not try to detail all the features and do not be afraid to make a mistake, the main thing is to transfer the features from different angles.

final

If it is difficult for you to draw in volume, take a real egg (you can cook it, just in case). Draw three lines in the center and add the dividing lines. Observe and draw the egg with contour lines from different sides - this way you will feel how the lines and the distances between them will behave from different angles. You can outline facial features on the surface of the egg along the main lines and trace how they change in size as the egg rotates.

Source: design.tutsplus.com.


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